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Essay代写:Secondary teacher education in the United States

2019-06-12 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Essay代写范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- Secondary teacher education in the United States,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了美国的中学教师教育。当前,美国实行全国教师教育认定制度,只有通过相关资格认证的教育机构才能进行教师教育培训。美国国家教师教育认定委员会是全国教师教育最权威的学术认可机构,为美国联邦教育部和高等教育认可委员会所共同承认。教师教育的目标有一个演变过程,即从对中学教师培养的单一的学科知识传授,到要求中学教师具有一定的教育理论知识、教学技能。近年来,美国提出了“五者型”教师培养目标,即教师应成为学者、教学者、交往者、决策者和示范者。

Secondary teacher education,美国中学教师教育,英国代写,英国论文代写,essay代写

At present, teacher education in the United States is mainly the responsibility of college or department of education, but more and more people began to question the effectiveness of training new teachers, so since the 1980s, there has been a movement of non-traditional college training programs. In 1990-1991, for example, 31 to 48 states adopted more than 40 alternative teacher certificate acquisition programs. Some of these programs are the responsibility of the public school district alone, some are the responsibility of the district with the state department of education, some are the responsibility of the public school with the university, others involve the public school, the university, and the state teacher certification board. The movement led to the creation of the national alternative new teacher development center and several other similar institutions.

Currently, the United States implements the national teacher education accreditation system, and only educational institutions that have passed the relevant certification can conduct teacher education and training. The national teacher education accreditation council is the most authoritative academic accreditation institution for teacher education in the country, which is recognized by the federal department of education and the higher education accreditation council. The establishment of NCATE marks the formation of the American teacher education accreditation system, and at the same time has had a profound impact on American teacher education. All teacher education institutions recognized by the national teacher education accreditation committee may recognize the courses and credits learned by students in each school, and the teacher certificates of their graduates may be used or exchanged in many states throughout the country. In addition, this recognition has certain authority in the country. If it is recognized by the committee, its academic status can be established.

The education management system in the United States is decentralized, and all educational administrative affairs at the state level are handled by the educational administrative department of the state. Therefore, teacher education institutions in each state, as well as all teacher training plans within the institutions, must be recognized and reviewed by the state education administration, and the state-level accreditation system is different from the national accreditation system. Recognition at the state level is the assessment of a training program within a teacher education institution. It is mandatory and essential. In addition, the United States has six regional professional organizations responsible for the accreditation of local teacher education institutions, which is as mandatory as state accreditation.

The United States is a decentralized country, and the specific situation of each state is not quite the same. Here, only the undergraduate level teacher training of some states is taken as the reference object. The main cultivation patterns are as follows.

Students in the first two years regardless of the major, must complete the general arts and science courses, which is also a normal major students of basic knowledge. If teachers are chosen as their future career, there are various forms of specific teacher education courses. Students in the first two years after enrollment may not determine the major, according to the school requirements, in accordance with the provisions of the school to provide a wide range of courses from the various types of liberal arts courses, in the second year of completion according to the elective process of their interests in the major and minor major. The establishment of major and minor majors can enable students to acquire professional knowledge and skills of more than one subject, receive extensive and solid professional training of liberal arts and science knowledge, and thus become high-quality talents; The major and minor programs can also improve students' adaptability to the job market and increase employment opportunities.

The first four years are mainly used to complete the bachelor's degree, and the second year to complete all the education courses and obtain the master's degree in education and teacher's certificate. Take the middle school teacher training program of the school of education of Stanford university as an example. The school adopts a five-year model of co-training by the school of education and the undergraduate department. Students will graduate with a bachelor's degree in a certain major, a master's degree in educational arts, and a California junior high school multi-science teaching certificate. The school of education at Stanford university selects normal university applicants based strictly on comprehensive criteria, such as academic performance, the ability to teach subjects, commitment to education, and the concept of social justice and public service. Those who want to enter the normal education program usually apply formally in the first semester of their junior year, but they can also apply in their senior year.

He completed his bachelor's degree in the first four years, and completed all his education courses in the second two years.

Although the four-year undergraduate level high school teacher training model still plays an important role in American teacher education, the 4+1 or 4+2 model is gradually replacing the four-year model. Currently, more than 300 institutions of higher learning in the United States have a 4+1 or 4+2 degree system, or dual degree system.

The goal of teacher education has an evolution process, that is, from the single subject knowledge imparting to middle school teachers, to the requirement that middle school teachers have certain educational theory knowledge and teaching skills. After World War II, the goal of teacher education experienced profound changes again and showed a comprehensive trend, while the goal of contemporary teacher education has gone beyond the scope of subject knowledge, educational theory and teaching ability, and extended to all aspects of being a teacher. In recent years, the United States has put forward the goal of "five-oriented" teacher cultivation, that is, teachers should become scholars, teachers, communicators, decision makers and demonstrators.

With the progress and development of The Times, the requirements of the society on the quality of teachers are also correspondingly improved, and there are higher requirements on the educational background of teachers. "The state prepares teachers for the 21st century" clearly points out that all teachers in the future should go through the educational training at the post-graduate level. At present, American states are holding teachers to increasingly high standards. Therefore, the focus of pre-service training of middle school teachers gradually transfers from the undergraduate stage to the master's or even doctoral stage.

In fact, the development of American teacher education is a process of university-oriented American teacher education. Its formation path is: from normal school to normal college to university education college; From university education lecture system to education department to university education college; Universities directly establish colleges of education; The faculty of arts and sciences establishes an education department.

There are various training modes for middle school teachers in the United States, including four-year undergraduate program, 4+1 and 4+2. Which education model is the best? Due to the differences in different regions, education levels and educational fields, the best mode to choose varies. However, with the increasing requirements on teacher education, the training mode of middle school teachers tends to adopt 4+1 or 4+2 mode more and more.

Through the establishment of professional development schools, universities or colleges of arts and sciences to form cooperative relations with local primary and secondary schools, the unification of pre-service and in-service training process and the dual subjectivity of universities and primary and secondary schools are realized. Professional development schools provide a multi-dimensional interaction between universities, primary and secondary schools, university education experts, primary and secondary teachers, interns and primary and secondary students, thus achieving multi-win.

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