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essay代写-The yeoman class in the British enclosure movement

2019-06-01 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Essay代写范文

本篇essay代写- The yeoman class in the British enclosure movement讨论了英国圈地运动中的自耕农阶层自耕农是英国的富裕农民阶层,它伴随着圈地运动和土地市场的发育崛起,成为农业资本主义发展中生机勃勃的力量。面对英国农村以圈地运动和土地市场化为标志的社会转型,英国农民表现出两种不同的状态,农村社会也出现了两极分化。自耕农顺应并得益于这样的变化,他们在变化中扩大了自己的地产和经营份额,提高了自己的地位。更为重要的是,自耕农经营地产的方式发生了革命性的变化。但英国并没有最终形成强有力的农民经济,自耕农随着圈地运动的加速进行而走向衰落。本篇essay代写51due代写平台整理,供大家参考阅读。

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Homesteaders are the wealthy peasantry class in Britain. With the development of enclosure movement and land market, homesteaders have become the vigorous force in the development of agricultural capitalism. However, Britain did not finally form a strong peasant economy. With the acceleration of the enclosure movement, homesteaders declined. However, different regions still presented different situations in different periods.

The English word "yeoman" is the Chinese transliteration of yeoman, meaning yeoman farmer. This paper USES the concept of owner-farmer, which refers to the wealthy peasant class in Britain. They are the agricultural operator class in the British countryside between the upper gentleman and the lower agricultural laborers, and they are farmers or tenants. Most of them owned their own land, or rented the Lord's own land, the form of production is mainly family farms. During the continuous enclosure movement, yeomans themselves were in a state of constant change, and the boundary between upper yeomans and gentry was increasingly blurred. Some yeomans were also engaged in part-time business or even mainly engaged in industry and commerce while operating farms, and the situation of yeomans' possession and operation of land was also in a changing process.

The enclosure movement was closely related to the possession of land. For the small farmers under yeoman, the enclosure movement directly led to their demise, and also led to the demise of the natural economy, which is beyond doubt. The main objects of enclosure were common land and wasteland, and even in the enclosure period of parliament, the proportion of common land and wasteland was still large. It is estimated that in England, by ACTS of parliament before the 1830s, the expropriation of common land and wasteland amounted to 2307,350 acres, or 34% of the total enclosure area. The land was legally the land of the Lord, but according to common law the peasants had a common right to gather firewood, raise livestock and build houses on construction sites and wasteland. However, as the common land and wasteland were occupied by large areas, smallholders, especially those who relied heavily on the common land, would be hit hard, and the survival fulcrum of small-scale peasant economy would disappear. Even when some poor people were compensated with a small plot of land, it was not enough to sustain them. Their land was too small to compete with modern agricultural enterprises, and they could not afford to enclose it, so they were forced to sell their land or go bankrupt. It is in this sense that "to deprive small farmers of their rights to the Commons is to destroy them completely". "Enclosure destroys the subsistence economy of the poor in village after village." "after the loss of public lands, the right to relief is the last -- and only -- right of labourers." British agricultural transformation process with large real estate for a small real estate continuously engulfed, encircle the ground to make a large number of small land ownership lose the land of the living, at the same time, the British land private ownership to the specification of the legal system on the basis of clearly established, the development of economy is no longer limited by traditional ethics and bondage ", in this sense, "enclosure for the elimination of Britain's natural economic residual played a major role".

The rise of the yeoman farmer was due to the development of enclosure and the accompanying land market. There were three main ways for yeomans to expand their land. First, they bought the real estate of the church. Second, the purchase of royal and aristocratic estates, such as the British bourgeois revolution; Third, the land reclamation and the purchase of bankrupt smallholders, enclosure. In fact, "yeomen are active enclosure". Yeoman's enclosure is detailed in the county's quarterly court records. Yeoman William bourdon of warwickshire, for example, is accused of "not only large-scale enclosure, but conversion of 200 acres of enclosed land into pasture, which resulted in a decline in the number of farmers on the land and the bankruptcy of many farmers." During the reign of James I, the people of warwickshire and northamptonshire complained of enclosure, saying that knights, gentry, gentlemen and yeomans were raiding the land of small farmers. So yeomans at this point were completely different from their fellow countrymen, and were in line with the gentry, actively participating in the enclosure.

Faced with the social transformation marked by enclosure movement and land market, British farmers showed two different states, and rural society also appeared polarization. Yeomen farmers have adapted to and benefited from such changes. They have expanded their share of real estate and business and improved their status. More importantly, there has been a revolution in the way homesteaders operate their land. They improved the technology on the land, introduced new varieties, set up a capitalist farming and ranching system, and employed hired hands. It can be said that yeomans have found the opportunity to develop themselves in time and in the right situation in the change of economic and social structure caused by social transformation, and they also bear the heavy responsibility of social change.

During the parliamentary enclosure period from the late 18th century, with the expansion of the enclosure movement at a larger scale and faster speed, the trend of rural land ownership centralization became increasingly obvious. From the perspective of land property rights, despite the great development of the rich peasants' economy before, due to the comparison of power, the rural areas in Britain did not form a strong peasant economy, and the large landlord's property still dominated. Of course, the landlords' estates had already completed the transition to capitalism. In the 18th and 19th centuries the property holdings of the English aristocracy and gentry showed a marked expansion. By the end of the 18th century, professor minger estimates, there were 400 wealthy landowners in England and wales, with 20 to 25 per cent of the arable land. An official survey in 1873 found that three-quarters of the land in Britain was owned by fewer than 7,000 large landowners. At the same time, farming was expanding. According to Ellen's research, the average British farm in 1800 was 145 acres, and farms of more than 100 acres accounted for 85% of the total. The increasing concentration of land property rights and the continuous expansion of farm scale both of these trends have resulted in a substantial decrease in the number of owner-farmers and the area of land owned by owner-farmers. Many yeomans sold their land to wealthy businessmen or large farmers. By 1780, davies points out, ownership of land was no longer a dominant feature of the English rural economy. But that does not mean that homesteaders disappeared, as they did until the end of the 19th century. According to the ministry of agriculture in 1896, 66,700 yeomans farmed their own land, nearly 3 million acres, or 14 percent of England's cultivated land. No county yeomans owned less than 10 percent of the land, and of the 11 counties, yeomans owned 20 percent of the arable land.

Even in this period of the decline of owner-farmers and their economic aggregate, different regions still present different situations in different periods. The 1793 report on huntington county noted that while the old enclosure areas of the county had been dominated by large landowners, in the new enclosure and open areas "property rights were indeed quite dispersed". In terms of time, the decline in the number of owner-farmers has occasionally led to the phenomenon of "rejuvenation". For example, during the Napoleonic wars, when soaring food prices led to an agricultural boom, the number of smallholders increased rather than decreased in most areas, according to the British department of agriculture. Paul muntu, in the industrial revolution of the eighteenth century, quoted alevi as saying: "the decline of the yee-farmer class was rapid in the eighteenth century, but it seemed to slow down in the prosperous years before 1815", when the enclosure was at its fastest speed. The regional and temporal differences in the situation of owner-peasants during the period of the enclosure of the congress show that the decrease of owner-peasants is also related to other factors outside the enclosure, such as industrial revolution and the development law of agriculture itself.

Did yeoman's economic status decline as the land was sold? Such records exist, but there is more evidence that yeomans are actively adapting to market changes by selling land to improve their situation. The researchers suggest that yeomans could be in a better position to become tenants of large farmers. They used the proceeds of land sales as capital to lease or buy and improve large tracts of land, thereby generating better income. The change of the homesteaders' initiative to give up their ancestral industries and run large farms seems to prove that large-scale agricultural operation, at least in most parts of Britain, has become a trend and the best and most important way of making profits.

The rise and decline in the enclosure movement yeoman class give us enlightenment on the history of the fact that even in the UK the countries with big agriculture as the main way of development, farmers' economy is not dispensable, passive and unimportant appendages, on the contrary, farmers economy in the process of agricultural development played an important role.

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