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英国essay代写:American postwar economic policy toward Japan

2019-05-15 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Essay代写范文

本篇essay代写- American postwar economic policy toward Japan讨论了美国对日战后经济政策。日本在战败后,美国的远东小组着手制定具体对日政策。经过长期对日政策研究之后,负责经济事务的费瑞在积累一定经验之后,充分分析了当时美国内部的三种对日经济主张,最极端的是使日本经济退回江户时期的农业经济水平,第二种是废除其重工业及海运事业,第三种则是实现非军事化和非武装化,但保留主要产业,即给予其经济复兴的机会。本篇essay代写51due代写平台整理,供大家参考阅读。

economic policy toward Japan,美国对日战后经济政策,essay代写,代写,paper代写

In 1942, as the United States declared war on the fascist countries, the state department formally took over the post-war affairs of the plan. Secretary hull in February 1942 expansion of special investigations, set up foreign policy advisory committee, in the same year in the summer, the committee was set up in the far east group, started to discuss the issue in Japan, its members mainly from the known as Japan Lobby groups of experts, including the far east question authority, George h. Blakeslee and Japanese history expert Hugh Borton, initial issue mainly TianHuangZhi save waste, Japan's territory, the postwar Japanese economy form, etc.

Know to day planning and policy makers always sent on the day when, at the casablanca conference in January 1943, Roosevelt issued a statement calls for "German and Japanese unconditional surrender", similar to the President, most Americans want to realize the fascist unconditional surrender hard peace, to this, to know, have different thinking, they want on the basis of the Atlantic charter, implementation to soft is aimed to build the peace.

From October 1942 to June 1943, the far east group spent eight months to work out specific policies towards Japan, with boyton and Robert A1 Fearey respectively in charge of political and economic affairs. After eight months for policy research, in charge of economic affairs before, after accumulating certain experience, fully analyzes the three when the internal economic claims for days, he believes that Japan's economy returned to the edo period is the most extreme level of agricultural economy, the second is the abolition of the heavy industry and shipping enterprise, and the third is the realization of demilitarization and demilitarised, but retain the main industry, given the opportunity of economic revival.

Ferri is suggested to consider three, first is the post-war Japan suffered a defeat, their survival needs, second, to hit Japan's economy at the same time, the post-war situation in the far east, Japanese goods will also be forced into competition and become passive, when the United States will likely lose far east market, in addition the biggest difficulty is that if the completely kill the chance of Japan's economic revival, other countries will also refused to Japanese goods equal treatment, the result will increase the difficulty that Japan's output, its foreign trade, it is not pleasure in the long run for the United States.

Ferri in favor of the United States, in general, the third sound advice, on the premise of humanity, at the same time considering the pre-war Japan as America's third largest exporter and second largest importer, and balance the needs of the Asian power, it is necessary to give the opportunity to Japan's economic revival, it also got economic survey of Frank s. Williams, December 17, 1943, far east group in the discussion to the small territory under the agreement, with overall consideration of the post-war economic blockade to punish Germany, in the long term this kind of method is not successful, Commission officials said many Germans because a postwar economic blockade make their children suffered from chronic hunger, its hatred dispersion, this lesson should be avoid in dealing with the Japanese, in addition, to maintain the survival of the post-war Japanese society demand instead of handling to the United States could make the Japanese respect, such opinion is also received the affirmation of Roosevelt.

In a word, before the end of the war, there were roughly six kinds of anti-Japanese plans in the United States:

The first is the destruction of slavery; The second is segregation; The third is the theory of interference in change; The fourth is the theory of diversionary use; The fifth one is the theory of deliberate intervention. Most of the supporters of this plan come from the Japanese intellectuals. The sixth is the positive induction theory represented by borton, which is similar to the previous one and comes from the views of the Japanese intellectuals. However, the difference is that borton believes that although the imperial system can be retained, it is necessary to carry out liberal reform in Japanese society.

After analysis discussion, rejected most schemes, and ultimately leave positive induction theory and interference theory of change, active supporters of the induction theory mainly comes from knowledge, pie, they want to keep TianHuangZhi, using the emperor and the Japanese government to deal with the interior, the collapse of the Japanese empire, realizes the demilitarization and democratization, etc., but state department officials say know, imagine too loose, tend to be more direct rule of the state council.

In February 1944, the state council established the post-war planning committee, and from April, the planning committee convened the people from Japan and Japan to discuss the policy toward Japan. The PWC 108b series of documents formulated on May 4 of the same year was regarded as the first relatively formed post-war policy of the state council. It defined the purpose of postwar policy, which was to prevent Japan from becoming a threat to the United States and other Pacific nations, and to establish a Japanese government that respected the rights and international obligations of other nations. In addition, the three periods of occupation are clearly proposed. First, disarm, remove and destroy military facilities and weapons, and apply military occupation to Japan. Second, military censorship and economic control, and the spread of democratic thought, the establishment of a civilized government; Third, return to the international community.

About to Japan occupied economic purpose, know that day send hope on the basis of compensation, eventually the Japanese economy into the world economic development orbit, but planning commission officials do not think so, state department officials tend to break the Japanese economy more centralized mode, destroy its militarism economic foundation, resist the threat posed by its recovery. During the tug-of-war between the two sides, it happened that former ambassador to Japan gruden was appointed director of the far-east department. With the support of gruden, the Japanese faction was able to argue with state department officials about the economic sanctions, and the issue of the economic sanctions intensity was once stalled.

At The end of December 1944, The State department, The ministry of War, and The state-war-navy Coordinating Committee were formed, and opinions on military policies and decisions regarding Japan began to be incorporated.

On January 19, 1945, the three ministries held talks and the military urged a "strict and fair" treatment of Japan. The military then submitted a political and military outline to the commission, which produced a report focusing on the dismantling of the entire Japanese military and the takeover of Japan by the occupying government. , May 22, the joint chiefs of staff advice, advice committee reference for policy review report, the key still wants to maintain sanctions on Japan and policy center should be around demilitarization and democratization, this is in agreement within the military, on May 1, communicate through naval operations office memo for three coordination committee of policy against Japan overview of the latest opinion, referred to the original and fair policy, suggest remove justice, said don't need to care about military government policy efficiency, focus on strict.

At the beginning of 1945, when the war was coming to an end, there were still differences between Japanese intellectuals and policy makers in the state department. The establishment of the three coordination committees made policy making take into account the considerations of the military. At the same time, the tendency of other Allies as the victors of the war towards Japan and the specific strength of their economic policies towards Japan were influenced by more factors. Roosevelt died on April 12 of the same year, and Truman, who had no previous diplomatic experience, took over as President.

For had previously only ordinary senator harry Truman, the absence of enough diplomatic experience have to start to listen to the relevant opinions of the state council, the new politics, news is not foreign experts, this kind of situation, has more than 40 years of diplomatic experience, deputy secretary of state of the global actually had a greater influence, as a known at the time of the day a representative character of global actually almost give play to the role of the senior director of America's foreign policy, and it is of great significance to Japan's postwar fate.

SWNCC 150/4, the last major change before the occupation, has the following important changes compared with the previous SWNCC 150/2: first, the change from direct rule to indirect rule; Second, expand and completely protect basic human rights and release political prisoners. Third, the disintegration of the chaebol, and the complementary disintegration of large enterprises and financial groups. Is the final document, before the end of the war against Japan economic democratization efforts to finally be able to determine, although in the TianHuangZhi and Japanese nationality to looser, believe this day send proposal has the upper hand, but the economy, as one of the most important measures to punish the chaebol collapse problems, eventually be able to determine, also it serves to show its economic base destroy militarism was determined.

In the 1930s, the world economic crisis seriously hit Japan's modern economic structure. In order to cope with the economic tide of survival, Japan launched the "918 incident" to divert the domestic economic pressure by war.

Wartime chaebol to reform on the system of militarism appendages of color, this is also lead to aggressive after the war the United States was once tried to one of the reasons for the collapse of the chaebol, reform also enabled the chaebol to the exercise of power in the broader industry field, such not only enhanced its influence in the economic field, also promoted the chaebol in the field of political power.

Because of its position as a pillar of the militaristic economy, the United States government set about dismantling the chaebol as soon as the war was over.

Demilitarization and democratization are in postwar policies to be adhere to the principle of the two, as one of the two largest center in the post-war Japanese economic democratization of disintegration of the chaebol, September 22, 1945, "after the Japanese surrender the United States of the early days of policy documents in the fourth part of the second paragraph," should promote the rule of Japan in terms of industry and the financial business and produce most of the conglomerate disbanded."

In October 1945, not long after the beginning of the occupation, MacArthur wrote to prime minister tookumoto: "the proceeds from the development of means of production and trade... To improve monopoly control of industry, Japan's economic institutions should be democratized. The general command of the allied occupation forces had earlier stated that it wanted the Japanese government and the chaebol to disband themselves, but both sides resisted.

On October 15 of the same year, the director of the economic and scientific development bureau of the allied general command, Thomas kramer, issued a statement urging the plutocrats of mitsui, mitsubishi and sumitomo to resolve the issue on their own in accordance with the dissolution policy formulated in the spirit of the Potsdam proclamation. Under pressure, yasuda chaebol took the lead to declare its own dissolution, then sumitomo, mitsui and mitsubishi in the headquarters and the government to jointly accept the dissolution. In October 20th, urging the society including mitsui, mitsubishi, sumitomo and 4 big yasuda confirmed good club co., LTD, make the working content and assets report 15 chaebol, 31, issue instructions above freezing chaebol assets, in the same year December 11 command instruction aforesaid 15 add three chaebol, 336 companies related to the 18 chaebol are identified as limited company.

On November 6, 1945, according to the instructions of the allied general command, the joint stock company consolidation committee was established to deal with the joint stock companies of the chaebol group.

The United States intended to weaken Japan as a dangerous military and economic rival. The chaebol represented Japan's enormous economic power. The dissolution of the chaebol has its particularity. On the one hand, it targets a small number of specific enterprises, and these enterprise groups have concentrated Japanese capital. On the other hand, the senior personnel of the chaebol groups often have close relations with the authorities.

In addition to the dissolution of the chaebol institutions, severing the personnel relations of the chaebol families was also key, leading to the retirement of a large number of powerful economists in the chaebol institutions and the renewal of their personnel institutions. This was mandatory for public employees of about 2,500 companies since January 4, 1946. The result was the retirement of 2,210 chaebol employees from 632 companies.

However, under the influence of the cold war environment, the process of dismantling the chaebol did not go as smoothly as expected.

Under the dual measures of dealing with the personnel relations between the joint stock company and the chaebol family, the chaebol as a form no longer exists, but it does not mean that the chaebol completely disappeared. The soil for the revival of the chaebol still exists in Japanese society. Since 1947, the headquarters began to formulate policies to prohibit monopoly and break the excessive concentration of economic power, such as the anti-monopoly law and the law excluding the excessive concentration of economic power, etc. However, the cold war changed the direction of the U.S. government, and the dissolution of the chaebol, originally based on demilitarization and democracy, began to relax.

On January 6, 1948, the United States secretary of the army segolene royal in San Francisco, known as the turning point of American policy against Japan speech, and the policy plan, chairman of the committee of the state council, the policy of the cold war George Kennan is also one of the leading designers, on March 25, 1948, write to the new policy report, to make Japan a friendly country to the United States, the focus of the occupation policy must be from the democratization of the political reform shifted to economic recovery.

In March 1948, the U.S. government renounced an earlier antitrust policy document, "the United States response to Japan's overconcentration of economic power." Thus, the central policy of exclusion was abolished.

The purpose of the United States' dissolution of the chaebol is not to eliminate the Japanese capitalist economy, but to eliminate the factors that hinder the free development of capital in the monopoly organizations, so that they can be rebuilt and developed according to the interests of the United States. Dissolving the chaebol is indeed a necessary way to prevent the resurgence of militarism and to consider its own national strategic interests. However, as the fact shows, the foundation of the chaebol family has not yet been shattered, and the policy will be revived as soon as it is relaxed.

To sum up, Japan's post-war democratic revolution was in full swing and was closely watched at home and abroad. The post-war democratic reform did indeed bring Japan a new look, but at the same time, it also carried an ambiguous transformation, which also contained a possibility of repeating the same mistake.

Postwar for policy making process through a long-term design, throughout the second world war, and even continue to occupation, policy stage claims, know, pie, administrative officials and diplomats, folk think-tank under the state council have left a mark on the issue, despite the many differences, but the most consistent principle is the starting point of these groups all around the United States national strategic interests, combined with their own experience to policy considerations. Demilitarization and democratization is the biggest characteristic of policy after the war, the early stage of the occupation strictly implement the principle of the two, is in the American national interest, such as Japanese plutocrat in pre-war position is very important to militarism and the militarism caused a great threat to America's national interests, so no matter how must the chaebol post-war harsh treatment to reduce the threat. When entering the cold war, coupled with the war, America's strategic interests in the asia-pacific region are threatened, Japan the bridgehead continue weak apparently does not conform to the United States to maintain its interests in the asia-pacific region, such measures, follow the policy change to Japan economy, as for the disintegration of the chaebol, even in the early going to tough, later period the relaxation of the executive power, combined with the reform time is shorter, the chaebol "recovery" back to the Japanese society also is only a matter of time.

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