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essay代写-A group of British connoisseurs

2019-05-15 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Essay代写范文

本篇essay代写- A group of British connoisseurs讨论了英国的鉴赏家群体。近代早期英国兴起了一个新的文化群体——鉴赏家。鉴赏家群体于15世纪末16世纪初随着英国人文主义运动的兴起而出现,在16世纪末17世纪上半叶最为活跃,直到18世纪才逐渐衰减。他们作为新生活方式的消费群体,活跃于英国文化生活的各领域,引领着近代早期英国文化的发展方向。鉴赏家群体的出现不仅改变了贵族的文化生活方式,而且也改变了英国文化知识的价值功用,推动着近代科学的发展。本篇essay代写51due代写平台整理,供大家参考阅读。

In early modern Britain, a new cultural group, the connoisseur, emerged. The rise of the connoisseur group is closely related to the economic, political and ideological changes in early modern Britain. The rise of the connoisseur group also changed the cultural life style of the aristocracy and the value and function of cultural knowledge, promoted the development of modern science, and affected the process of social changes in Britain.

In early modern Britain, a new cultural group, the connoisseur, emerged. The group of connoisseurs appeared in the end of the 15th century and the beginning of the 16th century with the rise of the British humanist movement. As a consumer group of new lifestyle, they are active in various fields of British cultural life and lead the development direction of British culture in early modern times. The emergence of the connoisseur group not only changed the cultural lifestyle of the aristocracy, but also changed the value and function of British cultural knowledge, promoting the development of modern science. However, in the domestic academic research on the Renaissance period. "Connoisseurs" are less popular with scholars. In view of this, this article plans to carry on the superficial discussion to this question, seeks advice from the fang family.

The word connoisseur has been widely used by different scholars since the 17th century. The early use of the word connoisseur is the early modern scholar Henry picham. He adapted to aristocratic culture and wrote the perfect gentleman, which was regarded as a connoisseur's handbook at the time. In the chapter on monuments, the author treats those who own statues, inscriptions and COINS as connoisseurs. As he put it: the possession of such costly treasures, belonging to or reflecting the thoughts of monarchs... A connoisseur, in Italian, of such things. In early modern times, the term also generally refers to the appreciation and collection of literary and artistic works. As the early modern English history scholars Lucy hutchinson in the famous cultural art connoisseurs of patrons, Chloe, hutchinson said, "is a famous connoisseur", he is as much as possible to collect all outstanding artists, and "all these people in painting, sculpture and other similar works can arouse curiosity". Often, early modern connoisseurs are also self-proclaimed amateurs in science. As Carson Samuel Duncan, who studied the history of science and technology in 17th-century England, pointed out, members of the royal society who conducted scientific experiments and research were "called philosophers, or more often connoisseurs." Robert Boyle, an early member of the royal society, also called his colleagues connoisseurs in 1660 in a new experiment in physical mechanics. It can be seen that the early modern connoisseurs were a very complex cultural group, including the connoisseurs and collectors of ancient COINS, inscriptions and other antiquities, as well as the connoisseurs and collectors of literature and art works, and even those engaged in scientific experiments and research.

Although the composition of the connoisseur community is quite complex. But they fall broadly into two categories: "antiquarians" and "amateurs". Antiquarians are the group of connoisseurs who, when they first emerged, were early connoisseurs of manuscripts, paintings and other antiquities. During the reign of queen Elizabeth, this cultural group amassed a large collection of COINS, insignia, carvings, manuscripts and published books, calling on the aristocracy to "diligently study famous figures in ancient works and do everything possible to buy these books". In addition, they also founded the Society of Antiquarians in London, and incorporated the antiquarian research related knowledge into the scope of school education, established the Royal Academy, developed the heraldic academy, and communicated and taught the knowledge of sculpture, painting, heraldic science, antiquarian knowledge, COINS, insignias and so on that will bring pleasure to researchers. The movement of antiquarians to promote the study of antiquities was very popular in the cultural life at that time, which led to a movement of antiquarians in British history. This movement presents the following characteristics: first, the number of participants is large. From the monarch down to the common gentleman, and even some wealthy middle class people are so enthusiastic about the study of antiquities, that "understanding paintings, heraldry, COINS, statues and so on become a sign of a gentleman". The second is a wide range of collections, all kinds of badges, sculptures, COINS, paintings, ancient manuscripts and so on are the objects of collection of antiquities researchers. Count arundel, the father of the English connoisseur, for example, is known for his "rich collection of badges and sculptures". His House, the ArundeI, is the best collection of ancient sculpture in Britain, with marble statues of famous figures from ancient Greece and Rome. Third, the collection is complete. Antiquarians tend to collect as much as they like and need. William fleetwood, for example, was a lawyer and member of parliament under queen Elizabeth and a well-known researcher of legal antiquities. He "holds the vast majority of manuscripts on English history and law".

Early modern connoisseurs also existed as amateurs. The reason why the connoisseurs in this period are called amateur science enthusiasts is that after the mid-17th century, the main interest of the connoisseur community gradually shifted from the study of antiquities to early scientific experiments and research. For example, the 9th earl of Northumberland engaged in the study of anatomy, cosmology, alchemy and distillation, etc., and obtained the nickname "warlock earl". Not only that, he also supported a large number of scholars, studying the laws of optics, number theory, sunspots, the moons of Jupiter; Set up a laboratory to extract elixir and study eternal movement. The interest in science became particularly conspicuous in the aristocratic cultural life of the time. People began to think that "it is almost perverse for an educated gentleman to neglect the charms of science". In 1645, connoisseurs with common interests and hobbies formed an "invisible academy". Instead of studying "theology, metaphysics, moral philosophy, politics, grammar, rhetoric, or logic," they met regularly in the astronomy classroom at gracham college to discuss "everything that can be seen, touched, felt, or heard in nature." In 1660, Britain established the first organization for the study of natural sciences, which grew into the royal society of London. The amateur scientist played an important part in the establishment of the royal society. Of the 131 members of the royal society in 1663, 18 were nobles, 22 were barons and knights, 47 were squires, 32 were doctors, 2 were bachelors of theology, 2 were masters of arts, and 8 were foreigners. It is clear that the vast majority of members are gentlemen of leisure who, as amateurs, take on the important responsibility of early scientific research. On the other hand, there is a difference between a connoisseur and a real scientist, both in the purpose of scientific research and in the attitude towards learning. In early modern times, real scientists were followers of baconian ideas. They conduct scientific experiments and research with the aim of trying to understand nature rather than just admiring its beauty. Therefore, baconians tend to carry out long and detailed experiments and observations, and use scientific experiments and mathematical reasoning, logical reasoning combined method to understand nature. They are the cultivators who are tireless in scientific experiments and research. Most connoisseurs do not possess the scientific spirit of a baconian. Connoisseurs conduct scientific experiments and studies solely to satisfy personal curiosity or to achieve spiritual pleasure. To connoisseurs, experimental science is neither useful nor entertaining to study. Therefore, connoisseurs lack the interest in in-depth study of pure science, and they are only dabblers in scientific experiments and research. Although the group of early modern connoisseurs emerged as amateurs in science, not all connoisseurs were amateurs in science. Some of them are devoted to scientific experiments and research. These people are not only famous connoisseurs, but also people who are deeply concerned about the development of science and promote the progress of science. For example, Dr. John Wilkins, a famous connoisseur, is one of the founders of the invisible college. Robert Boyle, a self-proclaimed connoisseur, was called the soul of the royal society, and his "work in physics, chemistry and physiology was of epochal significance". Known as the "eyes and hands" of the royal society, Robert hooker made great achievements in mechanics, optics and astronomy. John ray was "the greatest botanist in the history of mankind."

Although early modern connoisseurs fall broadly into these two categories, there is no clear line between antiquarian and amateur. Some amateur scientists are collectors of antiquities themselves. As I have said, many of the early members of the royal society were gentlemen of leisure, interested in scientific experiments and research as well as in the collection of antiquities. At their weekly meetings, they not only communicate the latest news about scientific research, but also often display their collections. Part of the collection is housed in the "house of monsters and whims" at gracham college. Antiquities researchers and science amateur just from the humanistic culture and scientific culture to the classification of connoisseurs groups, the emergence of the two cultures show that early modern connoisseur is active in the humanistic culture and scientific culture life each domain, "academic, natural science, the antiquities connoisseurs of pure art history study, literature, and are generally in the scope of".

First of all, the economic strength of Britain in early modern times provided material guarantee for the rise of connoisseurs. The relationship between economy and culture can be explained by engel's law of coefficients. The engel coefficient is put forward by the German economist ernst engel. It refers to the proportion of the total consumption expenditure that individuals or households spend on food. He used this to illustrate a rule: the higher the economic income of a family or individual, the smaller the proportion of expenditure on food, and the higher the expenditure on non-necessities such as culture and entertainment. According to this theory, the appreciation of cultural consumption can only be carried out in the case of higher economic income. In early modern times, Britain carried out the enclosure movement, confiscated the monastic property, explored the American colonies, and established the joint-stock company. These activities and measures undoubtedly strengthened Britain's economic strength, while the aristocracy Shared the growing wealth of this period. "Between the 16th and 18th centuries, the aristocracy was still the wealthiest social class in Britain. "Lord temple boasted of having 'a great deal of spare money', and William chatterney left over a million. It is thought that the second generation of Lord Foley left in 1766 estates worth 21, 000 pounds a year, mines worth 7, 000 pounds a year, and funds worth 500, 000 pounds." The great wealth has laid the necessary material foundation for the expensive cultural appreciation activities. For example, in early modern times, a famous connoisseur would not hesitate to travel and set up offices all over Europe in order to collect "one or two boxes of pebbles or shells and a dozen wasps, spiders and caterpillars". And frequently inspected each place iron ore, coal mine, the stone ore base. It can be said that without a solid economic foundation, there will be no cultural appreciation activities, there will be no connoisseurs.

The establishment of British bureaucracy in early modern times promoted the emergence of connoisseurs. Henry viii, the Tudor monarch, introduced changes to the governing body, establishing a bureaucracy with the king, the privy council, the secretary of state, and the chancellor of the exchequer at the core, answereddirectly to the monarch. The Tudor revolution introduced by Henry viii changed the rule of the monarchy since the middle ages. After the reign of queen Elizabeth, the British bureaucracy was basically established. The formation and establishment of bureaucracy directly affected the cultural life of the aristocracy. With the formation of the Tudor bureaucracy, the British bureaucracy gradually expanded. Under the historical background of increasing national demand for talents, nobles took it as their own duty to serve the country. But by the end of the 16th and the beginning of the 17th century, under the stustuart dynasty, the phenomenon of "bureaucratic bloat" in Britain had ended, and the chances of holding office were greatly reduced. In this historical context, it became an inevitable choice for some aristocrats to turn their interest to cultural appreciation. This can be reflected from the writing themes of the two early modern classics. Sir Thomas elliot, who lived in Tudor times, wrote a must-read for the sons of the aristocracy, the ruler's must-read, which was intended to prepare the aristocracy for future rulers to "set the standard of justice in public affairs". At the end of the early modern period, obadeya walker's "on education, especially the education of young gentlemen", which was popular in the upper class society of Britain, proposed that the aristocracy should spend their time mainly on the things reflecting their "special preference", especially the study of "history, antiquities and language". Natural history, experiment, medicine, foreign law, mathematics, astronomical observation, sculpture and many other creative aspects. Both of these works had a considerable influence on the shaping of noble spirit at that time, but the former emphasized the responsibility and obligation of individuals to the country, while the latter emphasized the pleasure and happiness of individuals.

The accumulation of British classical culture in early modern times provided the cultural foundation for the rise of the connoisseur group. The cultural activities of connoisseurs need to be based on certain cultural knowledge. Picham has cited the appreciation of sculpture as an example of this. In his opinion, to be a good connoisseur of sculpture. There are four requirements: first, to be familiar with the "history, poetry" and other classical culture, and to understand the "nature and identity" of different sculpture works in the classical era. The 2 it is familiar with "ancient coin" on the image of heroes, monarchs, can use the likeness of design to discern sculpture. The third is to have one of the most authoritative collection of sculpture - "sculpture and today's Roman connoisseur", the book contains all the important sculpture. Fourth, we went on field trips to various places. Of the above four abilities. The other two focus on professional skills. Like the appreciation of sculpture, the appreciation of other cultures requires both professional skills and rich cultural deposits, especially the knowledge of classical culture. At the end of the 15th century and the beginning of the 16th century, classical culture developed greatly after the spread of humanism from the European continent to Britain. During this period, Britain not only had grammar schools and universities and colleges to spread classical culture, but also published a large number of works to spread classical culture. The sponsorship of classical culture had become "the temperament and fashion of The Times". It was very convenient for people to be influenced by the classical culture at that time. Not only can they study classical culture by going to school or by buying books and then teaching themselves, but they can also experience the achievements of the classical and Renaissance periods and learn languages, classical culture and art by traveling to the continent, what picham calls a "field trip." Mainland study Tours, in particular, "can teach them aesthetic knowledge, knowledge of antiquities, and shape the understanding of a connoisseur." It can be said that the rise of connoisseurs in the early modern times is not accidental, it is the inevitable result of the accumulation of classical culture to a certain extent.

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