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Essay代写:Research on effective teaching in the United States

2019-05-15 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Essay代写范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- Research on effective teaching in the United States,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了美国有效教学的研究。有效教学是为了提高教师的课堂工作效益、强化过程评价和目标管理的一种教学理念。美国有效教学的研究始于20世纪上半叶,涌现出许多研究成果,对教育实践产生了巨大影响。教育改革的核心是教学改革,教育工作的关键是教学。教师在教学活动中占据重要地位,是教学活动的发起者和组织者。因此,美国研究有效教学的学者关注的是具备何种品质的教师才能进行有效教学。

effective teaching,美国有效教学的研究,英国代写,英国论文代写,essay代写

The study of effective teaching in the United States is a process of gradual deepening, which has experienced three stages: revealing the characteristics of teachers who carry out effective teaching, discussing effective teaching behavior, and formulating effective teaching standards. Reviewing the process of effective teaching research in America is of great significance to the deepening of education reform and the improvement of education quality in China.

Effective teaching is a kind of teaching idea which aims to improve the efficiency of teachers' classroom work, strengthen process evaluation and target management. The research on effective teaching in the United States began in the first half of the 20th century. The core of educational reform is teaching reform, and the key of educational work is teaching. Reviewing the process of effective teaching research in the United States and summarizing the experience and lessons that can be used for reference in China is of great significance for solving problems such as backward concepts, outdated teaching contents and methods, ineffective effects and even negative effects in China's basic education, and further promoting the deepening of education reform and improving the quality of education.

Teaching has always been a concern of western educators, and the study of teaching thought has existed in the west since ancient times. The research on effective teaching in the United States started in the 1830s and has gone through three stages so far. The first stage mainly reveals the characteristics of effective teaching teachers, the second stage mainly studies the effective teaching behavior of teachers, and the third stage mainly studies the standards of effective teaching behavior.

Teachers are the initiators and organizers of teaching activities. Therefore, the first concern of American scholars who study effective teaching is what kind of quality teachers can carry out effective teaching. In 1931, Cattell asked 254 education officials, teacher trainers, teachers and students to identify the most important qualities a good teacher should have. According to the survey results, the most outstanding qualities of a good teacher are personality and desire, intelligence, sympathy and strategy, open mind and sense of humor.

Getzels and Jackon, psychologists at the university of Chicago, argue that not only should teachers be identified for the qualities they need to teach effectively, but that such qualities should also be measured accurately. They looked at more than 800 research projects measuring teacher quality and found that most of these were standardized psychological tests that examined teachers' psychopathology and had no meaning for effective teaching in schools. For this reason, they further discussed that effective Teaching teachers should have personality characteristics, and their Research results were included in the Handbook of Research on Teaching.

Ryan and his colleagues observed that between the extremes of enthusiasm, self-discipline, infectiousness and imagination, and apathy, disorganization, boredom and conformism, teachers who were closer to the former were more likely to teach effectively, and those who were closer to the latter were more likely to teach inefficiently.

By the early 1970s, a large number of research results about the characteristics of teachers who conduct effective teaching emerged. To sum up, these characteristics are divided into two aspects. The first aspect is the macro physical and psychological characteristics, such as tidiness and charm, kindness and kindness, wisdom, open-minded, sense of humor and so on. The second aspect is the micro characteristics reflected in the teaching process, such as understanding students, strict requirements, rich knowledge, flexible teaching methods and so on.

This research on effective teaching from the perspective of teacher quality was criticized by some scholars soon after its publication. These scholars believe that although the quality of teachers is a necessary condition for effective teaching, it cannot guarantee that the teaching of teachers with these qualities is effective and successful. There is no direct correlation between good teacher quality and teaching effect. Research on effective teaching from the perspective of teacher quality is called black-box Research because it mechanically links teacher quality with student performance and completely ignores teacher performance in class.

Since the 1960s, with the deepening of effective teaching research, scholars have deepened their understanding of the limitations of the research from the perspective of teacher characteristics. They realized that compared with the characteristics of teachers, the teaching behavior of teachers in class has a greater impact on the teaching effect and has a closer relationship with students' performance. In the 1970s, Dunkin and Biddle put forward the teaching research model including predetermined variables, environmental variables, outcome variables and process variables, to further explain the relationship between teachers' teaching behavior and teaching effect. The predetermined variables refer to teachers' formative experience, training experience and teacher characteristics. Process variables include two aspects: teachers' teaching behavior and students' learning behavior. There is a close relationship between process variables, especially the teaching behavior of teachers, and outcome variables. Therefore, to become a good teacher, in addition to good quality, to create a vibrant classroom atmosphere and orderly external environment, but also need effective teaching, seeking to maximize the growth of students teaching strategies.

Under the influence of deng jin and bodel's model, many scholars have shifted the research focus to the teaching behavior and related problems of teachers and published many results that have important influence on teaching practice.

The teaching process includes two aspects: the teacher's teaching and the student's learning. Without the active participation of students, the teaching process of teachers cannot be started, let alone effective. American scholars pay much attention to students' study. Famous psychologist and nie the learning content is divided into intellectual skills, verbal information, and cognition strategy, motor skills, attitude, a total of five kinds of types, discusses the condition of effective learning these skills, and on this basis to build the contains the teaching goal, teaching process, teaching methods, teaching results, including the teaching theory system.

Bruner pointed out that there is no essential difference between the process of students learning existing knowledge and the process of scientists exploring the unknown world of human beings. All knowledge must be discovered actively by students and internalized into the existing knowledge structure. He believes that "discovery learning" needs "discovery teaching". Teachers should create scenarios to stimulate students' positive thinking, encourage students to explore and discover, train students to find problems, put forward hypotheses, and verify and compare methods.

In order to correct the deviation in bruner's theory, bloom put forward the theory of "mastery learning". He believed that with the right conditions and enough time, all but two or three percent of the students with disabilities could learn what one could in the world. Therefore, as long as the teacher carries on the diagnosis appraisal to the student original knowledge structure and decides the teaching plan according to this, the mobilization student positive emotion, USES the feedback correction mechanism, can realize the effective teaching.

Under the guidance of learning theory, many scholars in the United States have conducted experimental studies and realized that there are obvious differences in students' experience, family socioeconomic status, language and other aspects. Independent learning is an important way to achieve the all-round development of all students. Through independent learning, students take the initiative to enter the learning process, reason about the learning content, and think critically, so as to achieve more complex learning effects.

Research on students' learning process shows that teachers' teaching behavior has a great influence on students' learning performance, and the quality of teaching effect is directly determined by teachers' teaching behavior in class to a large extent. Therefore, by means of direct observation, researchers have summarized some teaching behaviors that can produce the best teaching effect.

In 1973, on the basis of reviewing more than 50 studies, the psychologist Rosenthal foster summarized 10 teaching behaviors that can produce the most effective teaching effect: clear description, instruction and explanation; Using different teaching methods; Be enthusiastic about the teaching content and students, and show enthusiasm through speeches, gestures and eyes; Guide students to discuss and encourage them to express their opinions; Teaching students to take learning tasks seriously; Prepare lessons carefully and create learning opportunities for students; Structured reviews are often used to organize, introduce, and define activities; Ask questions and give explanations at different levels of cognition; Less use of critical opinions; Specify materials of appropriate difficulty, etc.

In 1986, brophy goodall, a famous expert in teaching theory, wrote the chapter of "teacher behavior and student achievement" in the handbook of teaching research edited by whitlock, which divided teaching behavior into several types, such as making plans, presenting information, questioning students, answering and feedback. After that, they jointly published the book perspective classroom, which discussed how to impart knowledge in the best way, stimulate students' learning motivation, organize classroom teaching, effectively deal with classroom problems, promote the interaction between students, implement differentiated teaching, and evaluate the teaching behaviors frequently adopted by teachers, such as students. This book has been revised and republished ten times and is regarded by American teachers as a classic reference for effective teaching.

Once in the state of teacher certification assessment agency G.D.B orich in book effective teaching methods, summed up the clear teaching, task oriented, diversified teaching, guide students in the learning process, to ensure the success rate of five key teaching behavior, in addition to using the ideas of students and strength, organization, asking questions, explore, teachers' influence and other five kinds of effective teaching related auxiliary teaching behavior. According to baldridge, to be effective in teaching, teachers must clearly explain and present teaching contents, carry out teaching activities in a flexible and diverse way, organize teaching closely around teaching tasks, increase students' time and mental investment in the teaching process, and improve students' success rate in understanding and completing homework. In this book, baldridge also deals with the theoretical issues of teaching objectives and goals, classroom management, student evaluation, etc., and expounds direct teaching strategies, indirect teaching strategies, and questioning strategies.

The promotion of effective teaching methods and the implementation of effective teaching strategies need the active participation of teachers, but the standardization and guidance of teacher evaluation mechanism is undoubtedly of great significance. In addition, the unsatisfactory performance of American students in international student tests is also an important reason for the revision of effective teaching standards in the United States. For a period of time, the existing teacher evaluation system cannot distinguish between efficient teaching and mediocre teaching, effective teaching and ineffective teaching. Excellent teachers cannot be recognized and encouraged. Teachers with poor teaching quality cannot be found in time. Therefore, it has become the focus of effective teaching research in the United States since the 1990s to develop effective teaching evaluation standards suitable for primary and secondary schools and promote research in related fields.

In 1998, the center for education, diversity, and excellence, funded by the office of education research and enhancement at the U.S. department of education, published a report entitled "teaching matters: standards for effective teaching practices." The report, by Stephanie Stoll Dalton, is the result of a collaboration with more than two dozen institutions and universities. In order to ensure that students of different cultural backgrounds and RACES can receive a good education, the report proposes the following five standards for effective teaching at the basic education stage.

Teachers and students work together to design activity plans, group students according to their individual differences, monitor and support the active collaboration among students.

Develop language competence and improve cultural literacy through classroom teaching. The teacher should listen to the students to talk about familiar topics, provide help for language development through demonstration, guidance, exploration, retelling, explanation, questioning, praise and other forms, connect language development with cultural literacy and subject knowledge through a variety of activities, and encourage students to express their views in subject language.

Teachers should start the teaching activities with the content that students are familiar with, design meaningful teaching activities for students, and help students to connect and apply the knowledge they have learned in family and community.

Teachers should make sure that students have a holistic understanding of what they have learned, put forward challenging requirements for students, design teaching tasks that can promote students' thinking to a higher level, and help students complete relatively complex learning tasks closely related to real life experience.

The teacher has a clear academic goal when talking with the students. He guides the students to express their own opinions, judgment and reasoning in the conversation. He helps the students to learn by asking questions, retelling, praising, encouraging and other ways in the conversation.

Charlotte Danielson, formerly of the educational testing service and the author of classroom behavior assessment standards, wrote "improving professional practice: a framework for teaching" in 1996 for the American supervisory and curriculum development association. Given that teaching is a highly complex activity process, the report describes the conditions or standards to be met by teachers in four areas: design and preparation, classroom environment, teaching and professional responsibility. For example, in the field of teaching, teachers should be able to communicate clearly and accurately with students through oral and written language, use the skills of question and discussion, enable students to participate in the teaching process, provide useful feedback to students, and adjust the teaching plan according to the actual situation of students. To facilitate implementation, the four areas are subdivided into 22 parts and 66 elements. Each element has "unqualified", "qualified", "skilled", "excellent" four levels of specific requirements.

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