欢迎来到51Due,请先 | 注册
关注我们: 51due论文代写二维码 51due论文代写平台微博
英国论文代写,英国essay代写知名品牌微信

Essay代写范文

为您解决留学中生活、学习、工作的困难、疑惑
释放自我

essay代写-The American two-party system

2019-05-14 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Essay代写范文

本篇essay代写- The American two-party system讨论了美国的两党制度。美国两党是为竞选而存在的党,实行总统制下两党制。不管怎样,两党都是以总统竞选论成败,为成功竞选而存在。美国两党制的另一个特点是党组织结构松散,没有严格的投票纪律。当两党竞选总统或者国会议席时,互相大肆攻击对方的政治主张,造成国民意识混乱,把投本党候选人票的选民视为本党成员,导致党性上的模糊性和无界限性。一旦遇到重大问题决策时,各议员主要从本选区利益出发,考虑本区利益实际,进行投票而不去考虑本身的党性派别。这导致了美国两党的结构松散,缺乏约束力和凝聚力。本篇essay代写51due代写平台整理,供大家参考阅读。

two-party system,美国两党制度,essay代写,代写,paper代写

The two-party system occupies an important position in the American political system and is the main carrier of the American political operation. On the premise of affirming the advantages of the two-party system in the United States.

The United States has a unique political party system -- the two-party system under the presidential system. The two parties represent the interests of different classes of capitalists and serve their respective "bosses". Once conflicts of interests arise, they will take safeguarding their own interests as the principle, do whatever it takes to damage the rights and interests of the public, and fight for the life of each other, resulting in the government having to "shut down and wait for employment". So what is a two-party system? What are its basic features? What are the characteristics of the American two-party system? What is its essence? What are the inherent defects?

The so-called two-party system, generally speaking, refers to the political party system in bourgeois democratic countries, in which two equal and monopolistic political parties run for the presidency or the majority of parliamentary seats in order to realize the rotation of power. It has three basic characteristics: first, there are two major political parties that are evenly matched and have taken turns to dominate the national politics for a long time. Second, the two major parties are in opposition and competition. Third, both major political parties are elected on the basis of majority representation. Most of the current two-party states are former British colonies, such as the United States, Canada and New Zealand. The two-party system keeps pace with The Times. After decades of development, two typical two-party systems, namely, the parliamentary cabinet system represented by the United Kingdom and the presidential system represented by the United States, have finally come into being.

"Economic base determines superstructure", therefore, the "basic" nature of capitalist private ownership of means of production determines the "superstructure" nature of political party system. Therefore, "loyal representatives of capitalist interest groups, responsible to the bourgeoisie, and dictatorship over the masses" is the essence of the American two-party system.

The United States is the two parties for the election of the party, the implementation of the presidential system under the two-party system. The President is the head of state, head of government and commander in chief of the armed forces. The position was so powerful that it became the primary target of democratic and republican contests in the general election. The success of the election means that the party becomes the ruling party, enters the national power center and carries on the political rule, otherwise, it becomes the opposition party. However, under the "separation of powers" structure, the US President and congress are equal in law, so running for congressional seats is also an important goal for both parties. Presidential and congressional elections are held separately in the United States. The ruling party may not be the party with the majority of seats in the congress, but it may be the minority party. However, this does not affect the ruling party's ruling status. At the same time, opposition parties can participate in the power distribution of the country by winning a majority of seats in the parliamentary elections. Either way, both parties operate on the basis of presidential election success or failure.

Another characteristic of the two-party system in the United States is that the party structure is loose and there is no strict voting discipline. American political parties are different from British political parties in that they have no political leader or leader. In the federal system, congress and state legislatures, up to the basic level of parliament, have a hierarchical structure without any affiliation. The President is not the leader of his party and has no leadership over it. One party from top to bottom does not constitute a linear power system, which leads to the political order within the party and other consequences, but also affects the unity of the party. When the two parties run for the President or the congressional seat, they will attack each other's political ideas, causing confusion of national consciousness and treating the voters who vote for the candidates of their own parties as members of their own parties, resulting in the ambiguity and borderlessness of party spirit. When making decisions on major issues, members of parliament mainly proceed from the interests of their own constituencies and consider the actual interests of their own districts, and vote without considering their own party affiliation. This has led to the loose structure of the two parties in the United States, the lack of binding force and cohesion.

"The people are the foundation of political power, the foundation of the party's governance and the source of its strength. In the western capitalist world, such a statement is never and never possible, which is determined by the economic basis of the private ownership of the means of production capitalism. A series of superstructures established by the state power ruled by the bourgeoisie must reflect the will of the capitalists and serve their interests. Therefore, as a representative of the different regions of the capitalists and face - Democrats and republicans must be with the interests of capitalists, controlled by the capitalists on the political stage, control state power, the ruling class service, wholeheartedly for the general public is not to think, this is the embodiment of the nature of the capitalist class.

Secondly, both parties aim to win the election and are motivated by the power struggle. All activities are for the presidential and congressional elections, so they naturally do not consider and take into account the living aspirations of the lower classes, let alone protect the vital interests of the general public. Occasionally do some livelihood "face project", but also just to win votes. Whenever the election campaign begins, both parties will throw out their own policy platforms, seize each other's shortcomings and make a lot of attacks, promise better measures to benefit the people than the other party, and make empty promises to build momentum for themselves. Once the election is successful, whether the promise can be fulfilled is another matter. This has created a serious crisis of public trust. The black rights movement led by Martin Luther King and all the political crises in the United States have shown that the cash rate of capitalists' political checks is low and they will not make real projects to benefit the people. Third, the two parties are loosely organized, with no unified national leadership, no subordinate party organizations at all levels, and no party leaders. Power is exercised from the bottom up rather than from the top down, which seriously impedes the smooth decision-making and decrees of the two parties. Both parties face challenges and risks to their unity and stability, not to mention the obligations of the people.

The shutdown revealed the helplessness and impotence of the government. Why doesn't the government have the authority to enact policies that can't be effectively implemented? This is closely related to the American political structure model of separation of powers and the greedy and selfish nature of capitalists. The capitalist aims to squeeze the workers to obtain high profits, showing his greedy and selfish nature. Once they form a political group, step on the political stage and control the state power, they will make more laws and policies conducive to their own development and protect their own vested interests. In the model of separation of powers, congress and the President have equal status in law, the government and the two houses of congress check each other, seize this vacancy, the two parties act independently, and make full use of the votes of approval or veto to fight for and protect their fundamental interests. Therefore, in the face of decisions made by the state and the government, both parties vote on the basis of their own interests, taking into account the actual situation in their districts and the interests of capitalists in their districts, rather than seeing whether the interests of the state and the whole country are damaged. This fully reveals the self-interested nature of capitalists, and also reflects the helplessness and loss of the American government under the leadership of both parties in the face of the obstruction of power, the ineffectiveness of political orders and the reduction of prestige. Judging from the "political storm" in the us government, an ordinary healthcare reform plan was rejected by the congress. Such a small government decision could not get the support of both houses of congress, instead, it forced the government to close down on the grounds of "spending cuts". Then it is impossible to imagine what will happen in the United States to the Chinese people's livelihood projects like beidou navigation, qinghai-tibet railway, the construction of the three gorges dam, universal health insurance, and the "five guarantees" that will benefit 1.3 billion people with a total investment of over us $1 trillion. Not to mention the broader, more expensive, concrete projects that benefit the people.

Many people believe in American democracy and believe that the United States is the freest and most democratic country in the world. Is that true? In fact, the American democracy and freedom are capitalist, the freedom of ordinary people is limited. This sham democracy is mainly manifested in two aspects: one is the monopoly of power based on money politics; The second is to restrict, combat and divide the development of political forces. As we all know, the political activities in the United States are all based on money and carried by political parties. In the political structure of the United States, due to the natural link between political power and economic interests, as well as the demand for huge amounts of money in the election, money has become the lubricant and mediator of diversified interests in the American political arena. According to the data of think tank, the cost of the us presidential election is extremely expensive. For example, it was 162 million dollars in 1980, 324 million dollars in 1988, 529 million dollars in 2000, 881 million dollars in 2004, a staggering 5 billion dollars in 2008, and 6 billion dollars in 2012. Such a huge amount of campaign funds is nothing less than astronomical figures for ordinary people. In addition, the federal election campaign act and other laws give preferential support to the use of funds of both parties. Only the two major political parties supported by big capitalists and consortia and with considerable strength can complete the campaign mission.

The two parties maintain their political monopoly by restricting, cracking down on, and dividing the development of political forces. Here, it should be pointed out that many people have a misunderstanding of the two-party system in the United States, believing that there are only Democrats and republicans in the United States. In fact, there are many "third parties" in the United States, such as the communist party, the socialist party, the social workers' party and other small parties. But these parties are far too weak to compete with the two major parties. It's often a flash in the pan. Why is that?

I think there are two main reasons. It's determined by the social and political system. In a country under the dictatorship of the bourgeoisie, these groups, which represent the interests of the middle and small bourgeoisie and the proletariat at the basic level, must not be allowed to grow and flourish. The political party must be the representative of capitalist interests, to the political arena, or only to the fate of destruction. The restrictive, crack-down and polarizing policies enforced by the two major parties in the United States are an important reason why the "third party" cannot develop healthily. Both parties represent the interests of the bourgeoisie and will never allow their opponents to gain strength. Therefore, the two parties make full use of the advantages of monopoly politics, formulate relevant laws and regulations conducive to their own development, and set up obstacles and stumbling blocks for the growth of the "third party". For example: execute "relative majority onefold ticket makes", "winner gets ticket system entirely" wait to be helpful for oneself legal system. They may use the opportunity of election to absorb the programs and propositions of certain parties, force them to die out automatically, or directly co-opt and merge certain parties, or even reveal their cruel nature, and forcibly dissolve or suppress the activities related to the third party. These factors led to the abnormal growth of the third party political power in the United States. This also led to the limitations of American democracy. The monopoly power of the two parties resulted in the third political force having no opportunity to participate in and discuss politics. As a result, the decision-making of the two parties became closed-minded and lost the advantage of brainstorming.

To sum up, the two parties in the United States are the tools of political games between capitalists from all walks of life, and cannot represent the fundamental interests of the working people. The governments under their leadership are mostly helpless governments, lacking the cohesion of the heart, and unable to concentrate their efforts on major projects to benefit the people. American democracy, dominated by both parties, is a sham, a minority democracy. Claiming that "democracy" is the "safety valve" to safeguard their acquired dominance and interests, no matter how tempting the means and forms, their class oppression and exploitation are of the same nature, and some of their "policies to benefit the people" are only the products of the compromise of capitalists' interests.

要想成绩好,英国论文得写好,51due代写平台为你提供英国留学资讯,专业辅导,还为你提供专业英国essay代写,paper代写report代写,需要找论文代写的话快来联系我们51due工作客服QQ800020041或者wechatAbby0900吧。

我们的优势

  • 05年成立,已帮助上万人
  • 24小时专业客服
  • 团队成员都毕业于全球著名高校
  • 保证原创,支持检测

英国站