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Essay代写:American higher education governance system

2019-05-14 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Essay代写范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- American higher education governance system,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了美国高等教育治理体系。虽然美国高校办学目标多种多样,发展水平也参差不齐,但其治理体系却基本相同。美国高校的共同治理结构体系主要包括外部治理和内部治理。从外部治理看,政府与高校在法律上地位平等,政府不直接干预大学的内部治理,高校拥有充分的办学自主权,保障了高校内部教学研究事务遵循学术标准进行决策,从而不受行政压力和行政许可的干扰。内部治理的主要影响因素有以校外人士为主导的董事会、以校长为代表的行政系统、以教师为代表的学术评议会等。

American higher education,美国高等教育治理体系,英国代写,英国论文代写,essay代写

The United States has the most developed economy in the world. It has a highly developed higher education system with more than 4,000 colleges and universities. Public universities and private universities coexist, while for-profit private universities and non-profit private universities coexist. Although the goal of running a school is varied, the level of development is uneven, but its governance system is basically the same. The analysis of the effective experience and practice of American university governance system is of positive significance to accelerate the modernization of China's higher education governance system.

In the more than 300 years of history of American higher education, its higher education governance has experienced a development process from the board of directors' autonomy to the principal's leading management, and then to the common governance of interest subjects.

In 1636, harvard college was founded, which was the beginning of the governance of American universities. The management power of universities was controlled by the board of directors with the nature of legal person, which was a top-down management mode. In 1745, Yale college was founded and its independence was strong. The board of trustees appoints the President of the university, who decides who handles the day-to-day affairs of the university.

After the American civil war, in order to expand educational opportunities, the government invested to establish public universities. The structure and status of public universities began to be established. The group of university administrators developed rapidly and gradually gained the power to manage the daily affairs of universities from the board of directors. In 1915, the American association of university professors was established, and the power contradiction turned to the competition between administrators headed by the President and teachers, which was the characteristic of the American higher education governance system in this period.

In 1967, AAUP, the American council of education and the association of college and university boards of directors jointly issued the "statement on governance of universities and colleges", which proposed the principle of joint governance. Collective bargaining and trade union system became weapons for teachers to fight for power and safeguard rights and interests. Principals and faculty share the decision-making power of the university, and all stakeholders can participate in the decision-making of the university according to their abilities. Since then, "co-governance" has been the basic principle of the governance structure of American universities, which continues to this day.

The common governance structure system of American colleges and universities mainly includes two aspects: external governance and internal governance. The main influencing factors of external governance include government, social organization and market. From the perspective of external governance, the government and colleges and universities have equal status in law. The government does not directly interfere in the internal governance of universities. Colleges and universities have full autonomy in running schools, which ensures that the internal teaching and research affairs of colleges and universities make decisions in accordance with academic standards and thus are free from administrative pressure and interference of administrative licensing. The main influencing factors of internal governance include the board of directors led by external personnel, the administrative system represented by principals, and the academic review council represented by teachers. From the perspective of internal governance, the structure of joint governance endows teacher groups with primary power over the board of directors and principals in academic affairs decision-making. This power and tenure system together constitute the institutional basis for American universities to protect academic freedom, and to the greatest extent avoid the direct intervention of the board of directors in academic affairs and the erosion of academic power by administrative power.

In American universities, it is a basic condition for ensuring academic autonomy and healthy operation of universities to insist on the administration of professors, guarantee academic freedom, and maintain the central position of professors in university management. Professor committee system is also an important system of American university governance system and an important embodiment of "democratic governance" and "professor governance". The committee of professors is mainly responsible for academic affairs. The committee of professors has the power to formulate academic policies, teaching plans, professional Settings, allocation of research funds and a series of other matters related to teaching and research. The administrative departments of the university perform administrative duties on campus and provide high-quality services for teaching and research. American universities generally receive considerable autonomy from the government and are free from direct government interference, especially for private universities. The autonomy of universities constitutes another important aspect of academic autonomy.

The United States is the country with the most perfect development of the board system of colleges and universities. American higher education has followed this basic system since its foundation. Universities are generally controlled by boards of directors, whose members are usually prominent figures outside the field of education. The board of directors is the highest decision-making body and the highest authority of the university. The board is responsible for the appointment of the President of the university. The President is the soul of the university and the executive board makes decisions about the day-to-day affairs of the university. As an agent of the board of directors, the President of the university is directly accountable to the board of directors, and the other principal administrators of the university are subordinate to and accountable to the President. Teachers in American colleges and universities generally adopt the employment system. The tenure of teachers with the title of associate professor or above is usually for life. Once a teacher obtains the qualification for life, he or she has the right to teach in the school before retirement. The tenure system is designed to preserve academic freedom and ensure that teachers are not dismissed for seeking truth in their research and teaching.

With distinct power and responsibility, the decision-making efficiency is ensured in accordance with the principle of primary responsibility and primary power. The status and role of stakeholders in the governance structure of American universities are not completely symmetrical, and they are also properly reflected in the distribution of rights and responsibilities. The most central elements of this structure are the board of directors, the group of principals and professors, each with its own governing body to defend its interests. In the process of decision-making and implementation, the board of directors led by the external personnel, the administrative system represented by the principal and the academic review council dominated by the teachers not only perform their respective duties, but also depend on and balance each other, thus ensuring the scientific and efficient decision-making under the common governance framework. American universities usually adopt special committees to solve the problem of democratic participation and decision-making efficiency. For example, according to different decision-making contents, the board of directors sets up a committee composed of people with expertise and puts forward a decision-making consultation plan for all members of the board of directors to make decisions. In the academic council, there will also be executive committee, personnel committee, professional and curriculum committee, etc., to study and decide relevant issues or put forward special Suggestions. The special committee combines the professional elite leadership and democratic participation, and solves the contradiction between democratic decision-making and improving decision-making efficiency.

Fully implementing the autonomy of running schools at present, the autonomy of running schools in China has not been truly implemented, which also affects the enthusiasm, initiative and creativity of running schools in colleges and universities to a certain extent. Therefore, colleges and universities must be endowed with full autonomy in running schools. As the main body of implementing higher education, colleges and universities should enjoy full autonomy in running schools according to law. Colleges and universities can make choices in specialty setting, enrollment scale, talent training, scientific research and other aspects according to their own actual conditions, so as to enhance the strength of running schools, form their own characteristics and realize healthy development. The government should gradually change the practice of directly managing the affairs of colleges and universities and intervening in the specific behaviors of colleges and universities. We should be good at using policy, funds, evaluation, planning and other policy levers to regulate and control university behavior; We should encourage and guide interested social organizations and industries to take an active part in the governance of colleges and universities. We should entrust special intermediary institutions to make objective and fair evaluation on the quality of colleges and universities on behalf of the government and the public, so as to provide reference and basis for the government to allocate resources, adjust policies and participate in running schools. Colleges and universities should actively build a scientific internal governance structure, improve the governance capacity, and gradually establish a modern university governance system with Chinese characteristics.

To adhere to and improve the internal governance system of colleges and universities should adhere to the higher education system with Chinese characteristics, adhere to the leadership of the party committee in the governance of colleges and universities, and constantly improve the governance structure of modern universities with "the leadership of the party committee, the responsibility of the President, the teaching of learning, and democratic management" as the core. It is necessary to actively explore the establishment of the board of directors system of colleges and universities, increase the representatives of outside stakeholders, participate in the decisions of the university, and evaluate and supervise the implementation of the decisions of the university, so as to prevent the abuse of the power of colleges and universities, and better reflect the public value of higher education. It is necessary to further improve the system of responsibility and power of adhering to the leadership of the party committee and the responsibility of the President, strictly implement the higher education law and other relevant laws and regulations, further clarify the boundary of the responsibility and power of the party committee and the President, and improve the efficiency of decision-making. We should give full play to the role of teachers and students in the governance structure of colleges and universities, further clarify the functions of mass organizations such as educational congresses and learning congresses, improve relevant systems, fully respect the opinions and Suggestions of the majority of teaching staff and students, and improve the enthusiasm and initiative of the majority of teaching staff and students in participating in the deliberation and administration of state affairs.

It is an important prerequisite for ensuring academic autonomy and promoting the healthy development of colleges and universities to grant professors the decision-making power in academic affairs and ensure that professors can fully play an important role in the governance of colleges and universities. We can learn from the American experience, gradually establish and improve the system of professor committee at all levels, clarify the responsibilities of the committee, standardize the operation procedures and methods, and truly endow professors with decision-making power in academic affairs. In the governance structure of colleges and universities, the committee of professors not only exercises academic power, but also has decision-making power in the management of academic affairs. Administrative management and academic affairs responsibilities and authorities should be reasonably divided, and related academic affairs responsibilities should be assigned to the committee of professors.

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