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英国essay代写:Britain's mainstream newspapers are tabloid

2019-05-13 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Essay代写范文

本篇essay代写- Britain's mainstream newspapers are tabloid讨论了英国的主流报纸小报化2003,英国处于全国性报纸市场底部的独立报推出小报版本。大小双出,内容相同,价格一样,同时销售,读者可以根据自己的喜好选择大报或者小报。事实证明,小报化有利于扩大发行。同大报相比,小报版式对女性读者和年轻读者的吸引力更大;对那些依赖订阅发行而不是零售的报纸而言,如果长期订户不能接受这种变化,很可能会转投其他报纸或是其他形式的媒体。本篇essay代写51due代写平台整理,供大家参考阅读。

mainstream newspapers,英国流报纸小报化.,essay代写,代写,paper代写

In English, the word britainhas another meaning: tablets. From 2003 to 2005, Britain's three big traditional newspapers have been "slimming down", their circulation from just when the big leap up, to today's continuous decline, experienced roughly the same ups and downs.

On September 30, 2003, the independent newspaper of the United Kingdom began to launch the tabloid edition, which went on the market at the same time as the broadsheet edition, and abandoned the broadsheet edition in May 2005. On November 1st 2004, the 216-year old times newspaper became a small newspaper. In September 2005, the guardian also abandoned the broadsheet format for a "middle-of-the-road", slimming down to a "Berlin format" smaller than the broadsheet and larger than the tabloid. Meanwhile, some big traditional newspapers in Europe and South America, as well as parts of Asia and the United States, are also trying to downsize their size to meet the needs of commuters and young readers. At the end of 2006, the New York times, the "all-around champion" in the world newspaper world, announced that it planned to "slim down" from 2008.

In English, the word britainhas another meaning: tablets. For big newspapers, which have been in trouble for years, is "tabloid" really the panacea for beating their rivals and reviving their fortunes? From 2003 to 2005, Britain's three big traditional newspapers have been "slimming down", their circulation from just when the big leap up, to today's continuous decline, experienced roughly the same ups and downs. The wind and rain that these three big newspapers have gone through provides the best footnote for us to ponder the gain and loss of the tabloid.

On September 30th 2003 the independent, at the bottom of Britain's national newspaper market, launched a tabloid edition. Size is double, content is same, price is same, sell at the same time, the reader can choose big newspaper or tabloid according to his be fond of. In the first month of its tabloid edition, the independent's circulation rose by 18,000, a 9% increase from the previous month. At the same time, the rest of Britain's big newspapers are losing circulation.

In November 2003, the independent's tabloid edition began rolling out from London to the south and northwest of England. The independent became the only major newspaper that month with a significant increase in circulation, and the only major newspaper that had no significant loss of readers compared with the previous year. By February 2004 the independent was at its highest level since 1996, with tabloid editions accounting for 70% of circulation. In Scotland and wales, the independent has scrapped broadsheets.

The Times' redesign followed much the same path as the independent's, but it was faster and more thorough -- a month after the independent launched its tabloid edition, The Times, on November 26, 2003.

The circulation of The Times tabloid rose by 2.29% in the first month from the previous month. Industry estimates, however, suggest that after subtracting the Saturday and Sunday editions, which do not have tabloid editions, the actual increase in circulation would be around 34,000. On November 1st 2004, after a year of trying to double down, The Times abandoned its broadsheet edition and overhauled its tabloid newspaper. The Times had a circulation of 640,000 in November 2004, 26,026 more than the previous month, according to the audit bureau of circulations. The Times and the independent, two of Britain's 11 national newspapers, saw their circulation rise by 10.35% and 10.27% respectively from a year earlier.

The slimming of the guardian, which has been changed to a medium build, has also had a strong start. After 18 months of work and 80m of investment, the 184-year-old guardian announced on 12 September 2005 that it was turning its back on both the traditional broadsheet style and the trendy tabloid format with the launch of Britain's first "mid-format" full-color daily newspaper. The revamped guardian is in full swing. From the distribution of the first half of 2006, it is the only newspaper in the first five months has always maintained a year-on-year positive growth, and the growth rate is significant; In march and April it was the only one of Britain's 11 biggest national newspapers to record a rise in both monthly and annual circulation.

It is not just The Times, the independent and the guardian that are publishing data that suggest that tabloid publishing is good for distribution. Researchers at the firm's Brussels office tracked 14 European newspapers that were converted into tabloids between 1997 and 2004. These newspapers are in a market dominated by big papers. The results showed that in the six months after the revision, the number of newspapers with increased circulation accounted for 70%, the number of subscribers accounted for 80%, and the number of subscribers of 14 newspapers increased by 5% to 10% on average. Research also shows that tabloid formats are more attractive to women and younger readers than larger papers. For newspapers that rely on subscriptions rather than retail, if long-term subscribers do not accept the change, they are likely to switch to other newspapers or other forms of media.

Of course, newspaper owners are interested not only in changes in distribution statistics, but also in the long-term effects of these Numbers on market share and influence.

The McKinsey study also found that 14 newspapers accounted for 70% of the decline in advertising revenue, with an average decline of 5% to 12%. In contrast, advertising revenues at the independent fell 11 per cent in the first four months of 2004 compared with the same period a year earlier, according to Nielsen media research. All told, The Times's advertising revenues have fallen since it switched to a tabloid newspaper.

What are the reasons for the decline in advertising revenue? The China reporter quoted a report from the kubus press research center as saying:

First, advertising space has shrunk. After switching from broadsheets to quartiles, the size of a newspaper's print edition was only 46% of its original size. The shrinking heart will inevitably lead to shrinking advertising space. Compared with The Times on the same day, the actual size of advertising in the smaller format fell by 6.1 per cent, while the size of the format halved and the number of pages doubled.

Second, there is the loss of advertising. Newspapers vary in size and the types of advertisements suitable for display. For example, automobile and real estate advertisements are more suitable to be displayed with the layout size of large newspapers. Advertisers are also concerned that the number of pages after the revision increased, advertising messages are in danger of being flooded.

Newspapers make most of their money from distribution and advertising. In Europe and America newspapers generally generate a third of revenues from distribution and two-thirds from advertising. While it is welcome that issuance has gone up, advertising has gone down. It is a long story to weigh comprehensively whether gain or loss.

By the second half of 2005, the circulation of The Times and the independent was holding up well. In 2005, according to ABCs, The Times was the only national daily to report a monthly increase in sales over the same period in 2004. The independent is not far behind, with only a slight year-on-year decline in March and may in the first five months. Only the daily mail, one of Britain's nine national dailies, saw a negligible rise in February. Mirror and the guardian also hit record lows.

In 2006, however, the elixir began to fade. In the first three months of 2006, The Times was able to maintain growth from the same period a year earlier, but not by as much as in 2005. Since June 2006, times circulation has been declining year on year. At this point, it was exactly 20 months since it had abandoned the format of the broadsheet. The latest ABCs figures show that times circulation fell by 4.03% in May 2007 compared with a year earlier. So far, it has been year-on-year decline for 12 consecutive months.

The independent is also in decline, with monthly and year-over-year sales falling three times in the first five months of 2006 alone.

The guardian, a year after its redesign, is also running out of steam. In September 2006, the guardian's circulation fell for the first time in a year, down 3.17 per cent from a year earlier. Year-over-year declines in circulation have hovered around 4% in the months since. In May 2007, monthly sales were up slightly, but still down 2.47% from a year earlier.

If you look further ahead, consider the fact that British tabloids have seen their circulation shrink over the years even as the big papers have shrunk. Britain's tabloid newspapers, for example, have fallen from more than 4m to less than 3.1m at the top of the list.

It is not hard to see from the list of big and small newspapers that the "old" newspapers entering the recession and the big ones in the highly competitive market are the main forces of "tabloid". Their journey to tabloid status is in part a forced one, especially as global newspaper sales decline. However, the content of social environment, lifestyle, culture and its transmission form... Their changes are deeply affecting newspapers. None of this can be changed by resizing a folio. So, to some extent, the tabloid publishing boom is a temporary one.

Between 2003 and 2005, according to INMA, the world association of newspaper marketing, 60 of the world's biggest newspapers were converted into tabloids. "Tabloid" is both a trend and an opportunity, but relying too much on "vanity projects" such as big changes and small ones is dangerous and short-sighted. Traditional newspapers, especially big ones, have much to change.

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