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essay代写-The cause of the us trade deficit

2019-05-13 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Essay代写范文

本篇essay代写- The cause of the us trade deficit讨论了美国贸易逆差的原因。美国的贸易逆差问题由来已久,已连续18年出现巨额逆差,并且逆差规模有逐步扩大的趋势,至今美国已成为世界上最大的贸易逆差国和债务国。巨额贸易逆差是适应经济全球化的国际分工与美国产业结构调整的结果。战后,在这种国际分工的背景下,美国集中人力、物力优先发展以信息技术为主的高新技术产业,生产高附加值的高新技术产品,实现产业结构高级化的战略目标这充分反映了美国转移劣势产业,发展优势产业的战略意图。因此,这种全球化背景下的国际分工局面,美国出现大量贸易逆差在所难免。本篇essay代写51due代写平台整理,供大家参考阅读。

us trade deficit,美国贸易逆差原因,essay代写,代写,paper代写

In recent years, the us trade deficit continues to exist and has a tendency to increase. Why does the us have a persistent deficit? Fundamentally, there are various reasons leading to the deficit. Our group mainly studies and investigates the changes in international trade pattern, the development of Asian countries, and the decline of international competitiveness of manufactured goods through searching materials and literature review.

The trade deficit of the United States has been a long-standing problem. From 1983 to 2000, the current account of the United States has been in huge deficit for 18 consecutive years, and the scale of the deficit has a trend of gradual expansion. By 2011, the United States has become the largest trade deficit country and debtor country in the world. Data released by the us department of commerce shows that in December 2011, us imports grew faster than exports and the trade deficit further widened due to factors such as the growth of American people's consumer spending and the increase of businesses' business inventories. That month, the U.S. trade deficit was $48.8 billion. For all of 2011, the U.S. trade deficit was $558 billion, up 11.6% from a year earlier and a three-year high. That means the U.S. trade deficit has a tendency to widen as the economy recovers.

Why does the us run such a large trade deficit? Instead of looking for their own reasons, some Americans have always put the blame on other countries. More than 20 years ago, they thought the trade deficit was caused by Japan, Germany, etc. More recently, China has been accused of playing an "unfair" role in trade with the United States. Therefore, the United States has taken various trade protectionist measures against China: demanding RMB appreciation, levying anti-dumping and countervailing duties, and setting various technical barriers, green barriers, social barriers and so on. Is China really to blame for America's huge trade deficit? This is not the case. There are three main reasons for the huge us trade deficit:

The huge trade deficit is the result of the international division of labor adapting to the economic globalization and the adjustment of American industrial structure. After the war, especially since the 70 s and 80 s, on the basis of the preliminary of the development of globalization, multinational companies in the United States to use its own various monopoly advantage, in Canada, Britain, Western Europe, Japan and other developed countries as the main target of investment, in the manufacturing sector, including automobile, rubber, chemical, computer, precision machinery and instrument industry such as a large number of investment, greatly deepened level division of labor between the United States and other developed countries, expanding the scale of the trade between the developed countries. At the same time, multinational companies also invest a lot in developing countries, and establish a vertical division of labor system with developing countries. As a result, the scale of commodity trade between them expands rapidly. In the context of this international division of labor, the United States concentrates human and material resources to give priority to the development of high-tech industries dominated by information technology, produce high-tech products with high added value, and achieve the strategic goal of advanced industrial structure, which fully reflects the strategic intention of the United States to transfer inferior industries and develop superior industries. Therefore, in this international division of labor under the background of globalization, it is inevitable for the United States to run a large trade deficit.

The further development of economic globalization will make us trade deficit widen. In the context of globalization, the emergence of e-commerce and online trade has also changed the connotation of trade. As the leader of the knowledge economy, the United States has an absolute share of e-commerce. Microsoft sells nearly a hundred billion dollars of software products around the world. It does not make CDS in the United States, as traditional commodity exports, and then labels them and sells them around the world. However, the traditional balance of payments does not include the export trade volume of the United States. Obviously, the nominal trade deficit of the United States has a tendency to expand with the in-depth development of globalization.

Europe, Asia and North America were the main trading partners of the United States, and the United States had a surplus of goods trade until the 1980s. Asian countries, led by China, have replaced countries such as Europe as the world's leading exporters to the United States, generating huge trade surpluses.

In the last century, the focus of America's foreign trade was mainly the trade of manufactured goods, and the trade of manufactured goods was becoming increasingly important to America's trade deficit. Therefore, it is of great significance to analyze the formation of America's trade deficit from the perspective of the trade of manufactured goods.

Similar to the U.S. trade deficit in goods that began in the 1980s. Its trade in manufactured goods was also in surplus in the 1960s and 1970s, with a small deficit in the 1980s and a growing deficit in recent years. In 2004, the U.S. trade deficit in manufactured goods reached $464 billion, accounting for two-thirds of the total trade deficit. It can be seen that the trend of us trade in manufactured goods and total trade in goods is very close.

With the acceleration of the globalization of the world economy, the pattern of international trade and global industrial division of labor is developing and changing rapidly. America's huge and growing trade deficit in recent years has been caused not by other countries but by internal causes. On the one hand, the strong dollar led to a large number of goods imports. More importantly, the relatively high labor cost reduced the international competitiveness of domestic manufacturing industry. Although the United States still possesses the core technologies of integrated circuits and aviation products, as well as the strong capital and management capacity of multinational companies, with the international industrial division and technology diffusion, many products or production links, including the information industry, have been transferred to newly industrialized countries, especially Asian countries. As a result, the international competitiveness of American manufacturing has declined and the trade deficit has been huge.

Although the huge trade deficit of the United States has brought adverse effects on the exchange rate and employment of the American economy, the United States still has strong technical and capital strength. As the world's largest foreign investor, the United States can obtain huge profits by relying on the overseas investment of multinational companies. It is for this reason that the United States can endure a large trade deficit for a long time.

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