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英国essay代写:Psychological counseling service in British universities

2019-04-19 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Essay代写范文

本篇essay代写- Psychological counseling service in British universities讨论了英国高校心理咨询服务。在英国,高校心理咨询服务工作隶属学生事务服务工作范畴。心理咨询服务中心工作队伍以全职人员为主,兼职人员及临时聘用的心理咨询师为辅。主要服务对象为在校本科生、硕士研究生、博士研究生、国际学生和教师。每年11月份到次年5月份是咨询工作繁忙的阶段,这个阶段各高校会从当地社区或研究机构聘请兼职心理咨询人员,但每个人最多只能提供100个小时的咨询服务。本篇essay代写51due代写平台整理,供大家参考阅读。

Psychological counseling service,英国高校心理咨询服务,essay代写,代写,paper代写

As a kind of welfare provided to students, psychological counseling service in British universities has been widely recognized for its value. To understand the psychological counseling service in British colleges and universities has certain reference significance for the mental health education and student affairs management in Chinese colleges and universities.

In 2008, the author studied student affairs management in he University of Reading as a visiting scholar. During this period, I got to know the general situation and characteristic projects of psychological counseling service in British universities through the participation and in-depth investigation of psychological counseling service in the university of reading and the discussion with the leaders of psychological counseling service in the university of Oxford, the university of Cambridge and the university of bath. This will provide a powerful reference and help for strengthening and improving the psychological counseling service in colleges and universities of our country.

In Britain, psychological counseling as a planned and organized activity can be traced back to the late 1940s, which was generated to alleviate various social crises brought about by World War II. The same is true for the development of school counseling services to a large extent. With the emergence of many new universities and the increase in the number of new students, psychological counseling as a welfare provided to students was initially approved in 1970 with the establishment of the Association for Student counseling. As the first new University in post-war Britain, the University of Keele established a comprehensive counseling service from career guidance to personality therapy for students in 1962 and made it an essential part of the school education service system.

In the UK, psychological counseling service in universities falls under the scope of student affairs service. The working team of the psychological counseling service center is mainly composed of the director, assistant director, psychological consultant, study consultant, peer counseling consultant, mental health consultant, international student affairs consultant, administrative support personnel and project officials. Its members are mainly full-time staff, part-time staff and temporary psychological consultants as a supplement. Our main clients are undergraduates, postgraduates, PhD students, international students and teachers. During the busy period from November to may, colleges and universities hire part-time counselors from local communities or research institutions, but each person can only provide a maximum of 100 hours of counseling.

In terms of the content of counseling, taking the university of reading as an example, the main problems of counseling for students were anxiety, depression, emotion, learning related problems, family accidents, and less sexual abuse, alcohol abuse, self-injury, identity, physical diseases and addictive behaviors.

The main problems were depression, marriage, anxiety, welfare and contract, death of family member, physical and mental abuse, adaptability, teaching, self, addiction, mental health and suicidal tendency.

The psychological counseling team of British universities is generally composed of psychological counselors, learning counselors, peer counseling counselors, mental health counselors, state counselors, mental health counselors, etc. Peer tutoring, a relatively new phenomenon in British universities, originated at Oxford University. In the 1990s, peer mentoring consultant Kate ward-perkins and her colleagues co-authored the peer coaching training manual, which promoted the experience of peer coaching and advocated the establishment of peer coaching teams in universities. Peer counselling is now increasingly common in British universities.

The key to peer counseling lies in the training of peer counselors. British colleges and universities mainly train students' peer counselors by combining concentrated and experiential training with continuous guidance. During freshers week, a group of students is recruited for 10 weeks of systematic training. One topic per week, a total of ten topics: introduction to peer coaching training; How to communicate with strangers; Nonverbal communication skills; How to effectively advise others; How to communicate successfully with other generations; Multiple types of communication; Know your role in the family; Enhance students' awareness of different views and behaviors due to cultural differences and conventional things; How to help students in crisis; How to help people in extreme situations, such as those with suicidal tendencies.

The university of reading trains about 10 peer counselors at a time, 30 to 40 a year, and plans to train some in dorms, striving for one peer counselor for every 50 students.

The challenge for the peer counselling work mainly how to improve the consciousness of peer counselor, how to improve the peer counselor in the campus image, how to get peer counselling work combined with the actual situation of their schools and colleges, form their own model, it is also a British college peer counselling work are in-depth study.

British universities attach great importance to students' academic guidance and take academic support as part of psychological counseling. In the 1990s, study counselors at British universities joined the psychological counseling service to provide academic guidance and services to all students from the preparatory stage to the doctoral stage in order to better implement the national policy of expanding the participation of higher education. Study counselors provide students with academic support through workshops, study manuals, networking, one-on-one services, and assessment of learning disabilities. Specifically, learning counselors organize workshops to develop students' learning skills, especially to strengthen new learning skills of college students, and to evaluate students' learning difficulties or special needs, such as reading difficulties and dyslexia. In addition, learning consultants also provide support for teachers, especially in some difficult problems. For students with mild autism, study counselors provide one-on-one counseling. At present, the academic support services provided by British universities for students have been recognized nationwide.

Apart from psychological relief for students, psychological counseling service in British colleges and universities is characterized by psychological relief for teachers and school management leaders. Universities in the UK also offer psychological stress relief services to overseas students, who make up a large proportion of students in the UK. Many students leave their country to a new place will produce pressure, like a rubber band can be stretched, but to a certain extent will be unbearable, and produce psychological problems. Students tend to see the doctor more often in the first three months, such as students often have a headache, gastrointestinal and other health problems, which is actually not happy and through the body. There are also emotional difficulties, in which students get angry, cry and feel tired for no reason, which leads to lower learning efficiency and psychological symptoms. To this end, the British college psychological counseling center will set up a special psychological counseling team for overseas students to carry out psychological stress relief to help them through the difficulties.

In the aspect of psychology, the needs of students are not only explicit and realistic, but also implicit and potential. British colleges and universities not only pay attention to dealing with and solving students' explicit and realistic psychological needs, but also pay great attention to students' implicit psychological needs and potential problems that may cause students' psychological problems. For example, in the choice of consulting location, the needs of students are also fully considered. The consulting center was originally in the same building as the medical service institutions, and is now located in the one-stop service center of student affairs. On the one hand, students can receive instant counseling services at any time, and on the other hand, it is to avoid the confusion of psychological counseling and mental illness. According to the university of reading, temporary counseling has increased by 24 percent this year due to changes in office locations, to ensure that students with mental health problems receive timely services.

With British college counseling is reflected in the student to compare, domestic colleges and universities should be improved in the following aspects: one is the original psychological health education and consulting service work and students' academic development organically fuses in together, avoid the band-aid, kaufmann, also can avoid the student mention consulting with mental illness, mental illness and mental; Second, while providing individual support for students, we should make full use of the characteristics and advantages of group counseling and actively carry out group counseling activities. Third, on the basis of giving consideration to all students, the service objects should focus on the psychology of students with difficulties, such as students with economic difficulties, academic difficulties and employment difficulties. Fourthly, in terms of team building, on the basis of cultivating professional and part-time staff, we should make use of the characteristics and advantages of peer mutual assistance, focus on building a peer counseling team, and strengthen the system and continuous training of peer counselors. At present, the domestic some universities have begun to attach importance to peer counselling team construction, such as the northeast normal university to set up the "angel heart", Beijing university of aeronautics and astronautics class "development committee, tianjin university to set up in the class committee cadres' psychological committee", etc., but compared with the UK universities, colleges and universities in China for peer counsellors to provide system training and guidance of uninterrupted remains to be improved.

The quality of college psychological counseling service workers will directly affect the effective development of college psychological counseling. Britain will college counseling as a kind of occupation, type of industry, a professional, emphasize professionals play a role of the professional function in many ways, has become a very specialized profession, has all the features that professional: complete knowledge system, independent literature accumulation, has certified university departments, can provide professional training, licenses, certification and licensing of professional organizations and institutions, job opportunities, moral principles, continuing education system, etc. The British psychological society stipulates that the minimum qualification conditions for psychological counseling workers are graduate degree or above, teacher qualification certificate, more than two years of teaching experience for children and teenagers, and at least two years of training in educational psychology after the graduate degree.

Compared with the professional teams required by British colleges and universities, domestic colleges and universities have specialized psychological education staff, and the number of staff and work tasks have also met the staffing requirements stipulated by higher education administrative departments, but many colleges and universities have not yet risen to the professional requirements for the practical skills of psychological workers. Compared with the UK universities pay attention to team standardized, professional, the current domestic university really specialized, a high level of professional psychological teachers or rare, is basically a part-time is given priority to, with only some professionals engaged in this field is self-study, hobbies and passion, or just take short-term learning training certificate, has not obtained a standard access to professional qualification certificates. This suggests that in order to provide high-quality psychological health education and psychological counseling services, efforts must be made in the construction and training of a professional team, which is the guarantee for colleges to do a good job in psychological health education and counseling.

British colleges and universities have established relatively perfect psychological consultation mechanism and strictly abide by it. One is the confidentiality mechanism. The UK attaches great importance to students' privacy and has legal protection. All information provided by the student in the counseling center is confidential. Without the student's consent, the counselor shall not share the information with others, including the student's personal tutors and parents. Second, the referral mechanism. College counseling centers are only responsible for relatively simple and developmental problems, and students or faculty members whose personal psychological problems are beyond the scope of services or need to be solved for a long time will be referred to local medical institutions. There are three main referral methods: self-referral, referral by family doctors and nurses, and referral by personal mentors. In contrast, at present, domestic colleges and universities have not established a complete confidentiality and referral mechanism, staff awareness of confidentiality and referral also need to be improved.

The main methods of psychological counseling service for all students in British universities are workshops, lectures, group discussions, peer counseling and one-to-one counseling. Among them, workshops, peer counseling and in-depth systematic training for teachers are worthy of domestic colleges and universities for reference and in-depth learning. For example, workshop is an increasingly popular way of self-improvement. Generally speaking, the workshop is centered on a keynote speaker with rich experience in a certain field. Under the guidance of the keynote speaker, a small group of about 10-20 people will discuss a certain topic through activities, discussions and exchanges. The British college counseling center will provide 70 to 80 workshops for freshmen to help them adapt to university life as soon as possible. Topics include how to manage time, how to read effectively, how to take effective notes in class, how to write papers, how to include references in papers to avoid plagiarism, how to make oral presentations, how to prepare for exams, how to communicate and communicate with others, etc.

The psychological counseling center of British colleges and universities is set up under the department of student affairs, under the overall planning of the minister of student affairs, and under the specific planning and implementation of the director of the psychological counseling center. When students with mental health problems or psychological crisis are found, the psychological counseling department will cooperate with other departments to provide students with various supports, including academic support, examination and evaluation, investigation work, career guidance, accommodation services, financial support, and student guidance services. For example, the counseling center of the university is closely related to the community medical institutions, such as the eating disorder service. The community medical institutions carry out the expert outpatient service once a month. In contrast, mental health education and psychological counseling in domestic colleges and universities provide students with less systematic and comprehensive support and services, but only from a psychological perspective to provide support and care, and lack of evaluation and care for students in other aspects.

In addition, the psychological counseling work in British universities pays more and more attention to the use of high-tech and network information platform. British colleges and universities also pay special attention to the use of the Internet to transfer resources needed by students to students in a timely, convenient and fast manner. For example, a project officer will be set up in the consulting center to focus on the development of learning resources, with the participation of 16 universities across the UK. The goal is to eventually set up a national website, so that any student in the 16 universities can get help from 16 universities if he or she has academic difficulties. At the same time, psychological counseling center will be a series of psychological self-help knowledge and skills of students, activity information, brochures and other resources are uploaded to the network, and then sent to the student mailbox or posted on the personal portal of students, students can quickly get information and help from the network according to personal needs. In comparison, some universities in China have set up mental health education and consultation websites, which are beautiful in website design, but need to be improved in the maintenance and update of information and resources.

The construction and development of psychological counseling related disciplines in British universities are relatively developed, and the psychological counseling service departments in British universities can also get strong support and help from various professional departments, national relevant psychological associations and medical institutions. For example, British universities study positive psychology and widely use it in practice. Positive psychology advocates that people should cultivate a positive attitude, face reality and various psychological phenomena with a positive state, objectively and optimistically understand and deal with the connection between reality and psychology, and stimulate the actual or potential power of individuals. Different from traditional psychology, positive psychology not only puts forward the idea of prevention for negative psychology, but also puts forward a new mission for positive psychology, that is, to make the life of all people more substantial and meaningful, and to identify and cultivate highly talented people. Although domestic research institutions and colleges and universities have made great progress and development in psychological counseling theory and practice, the basic theoretical research on psychological counseling and mental health education is still insufficient. In addition, the technical tools in the consulting activities are mostly imported from abroad, many of which are not in line with China's national conditions. The localization of psychological counseling and mental health education has not been done enough, and the research on how to build psychological counseling and mental health education institutions in line with China's national conditions needs to be further strengthened.

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