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essay代写-Sport for Development

2019-04-15 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Essay代写范文

本篇essay代写- Sport for Development讨论了体育促进发展。如今,体育发展对一个国家至关重要。然而,体育发展的社会功能却被忽视了。这是因为体育发展有能力建立联系,增加社区参与,并对社会资本作出积极贡献。因此,社会凝聚力与体育发展之间存在着正相关关系。本篇essay代写51due代写平台整理,供大家参考阅读。

Sport for Development,体育促进发展,essay代写,代写,paper代写

Sports development is of crucial importance for a country. However, the social functions of sports development have been neglected. In the plan of sports reform proposed by the Australian government in 2010, a total of $1.2 billion of funding has been gathered to boost the development of sports at all levels. However, this plan from seven years ago failed to fully address the potential of sport development through collaboration with different organizations to promote social cohesion. In this essay, it is argued that sport acts as the “glue” holding different groups of people and communities together. The potential of sports to contribute to positive social capital will be explored with the focus on a specific ethnic, gender and age group. Naturally, the most disadvantaged populations should receive the most attention. In this essay, the disadvantaged status of Indigenous Australian females is introduced and explained, followed by theories establishing the relevance between sports development and social cohesion. It is the intention of this discussion to eliminate the barriers and achieve equality for Indigenous Australian females in obtaining equal benefits of the sports system like other demographics. To serve this purpose, seven recommendations will be presented in the final part of this essay.

As reported by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Australia ranks the fifth place among most obese developed countries. By the year of 2007, over half of Australia adults of both genders were considered overweight or obese. The rate of overweight children was 17% (Australian Government, 2010). These alarming numbers has urged the government to come up with national sports programs over the years. However, most of these programs are targeting the entire population, while the disadvantage groups in Australia have been neglected. Although drawing specific plans for a demographic seems either unfair to the rest or discriminative, it should be regarded as an important step towards social cohesion. The social function of sports has not been realized till the 1990s. Back then, there was little concern about the social cohesion effects brought by pubic sport programs. Sports were for the sake of sports mostly, as the primary concern of the Australian Sports Commission was the excellence in sports performance. It is the realization of the greater potential of sports to the development and harmony of the society that made “sports for the Indigenous population” an issue of importance. The development of modern Australian Indigenous sport can be traced back to the early 20th century, when the Indigenous population in Australia shifted from the traditional hunting and survival skills to modern sport activities. Although Indigenous inclusion has been accepted by the mainstream society since the 1960s, there had not been specific plans to promote their participation until recent decades. There exist many barriers that hinder the Indigenous population from fully being benefited by the current sport system. Both the internal and external factors matter to the level of participation, which have gradually become the sources of inequality among different ethnic groups in Australia.

According to research carried out by the Australian Government, women’s sport only accounts for 9% of all the sports news in the country, which is about ten percent of the coverage for men’s sport (Australian Government, 2010). In national sport organizations, the number of female members in the boards is less than 25%. These figures directly demonstrate the disadvantaged status of women in sport-related issues. Similar to the female population, the Indigenous population also suffers from a disproportional representation in national sports news and organization. This contributed to the gap of life expectancy between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. Sports can be an effective tool for the former communities to enhance their wellbeing as well as mental health. Participation in sports will also increase the level of social integration between different ethnic groups. However, these benefits of sports have been failing to realize in Australia. Another group that is also vulnerable to the lack of sport participation is the younger generation (Crawford, 2009). With the social network and video games competing for more time, sports may be in a disadvantaged position if not adequately promoted. In addition, while film stars and YouTubers become popular among the younger generation, there is a lack of inspiring role models for different kinds of sports who are relatable for teenagers. The traditional image of beauty is also preventing girls from choosing sports that may “damage” their femininity. Combining the females, the Indigenous and the young, this group becomes a most disadvantaged population that require extra care when making plans for sports development.

In addition to the barriers discussed above, Indigenous females are also bound by the household responsibilities and the conventional beliefs of the female’s subordinate role in the household (Macdonald, Abbott & Jenkins, 2012). It is with these beliefs that Indigenous females are less active and less concerned about their own physical wellbeing enhancement. Another notable factor from research is the influence of gambling among Indigenous females. Based on a survey of over six hundred Indigenous women in Australia, gambling has become a popular social activity among them, with a high rate of participation (Hing, Breen, Gordon & Russell, 2014). Although gambling among friends and relatives seems to be harmless, it diminishes the opportunity for women to participate in more active social activities like sports. Although the authors have proposed education of gambling awareness for women, it is believed that providing an alternative is the best way to prevent addiction. It is imperative for such programs to be more target specific, since gambling mothers have a negative influence on their daughters, too. To help remove the barriers in the way of the Indigenous females, a combinational strategy should be adopted that extend the “pure” sport development to human, cultural and societal development. Such an extension is realized with the increased cooperation between sport and non-sport organizations. In the UK, for instance, the funding for sports programs has been increasingly generated from not only sport-related government agencies, but also non-sport organizations and agencies (Skinner, Zakus & Cowell, 2008). The aim of the involvement is mostly to enhance social inclusion for the disadvantaged groups. This strategy is also applicable for Australia, since both countries share similar cultural and social contexts.

The relevance between sports development and social capital has long been established. In the paper by Skinner, Zakus & Cowell (2008), different from economic and cultural capital, social capital is only accumulated through mutual acquaintance or recognition between different groups. The authors thus argue that sports development has the ability to forge connections, increase community engagement, and contribute positively to social capital. According to lecture notes, one of the important characteristics of sports development is: equal opportunity, unequal effort. Due to the preexisting social and cultural norms, Indigenous females face more challenges in sports participation, which naturally means that they would require more effort in the restoration of equality. The conventional sports development model would need to be modified for every element so that it becomes appropriate for Australian Indigenous females. While defining the pathway of development, different stages and the respective stakeholders and resources needed must be clearly identified. The goal is to establish a continuum of sports involvement for Indigenous females: foundation, participation, performance and finally excellence. Only when every element in the continuum is secured can Indigenous females get access to high-performance sport. Therefore, investments in developing the basic infrastructure, service and assistance systems are necessary before equality can finally be achieved. This is a process to be completed in years, or even decades. To ensure the flexibility of the system, a bottom-up feedback tunnel must be established. Since the people working at the end of the system may understand even more about the appropriate approaches to help Indigenous females than the policy makers, their input in the adjustments in policies should be highly valued and tentatively responded to.

Based on the above discussions, seven recommendations have been derived to help promote the health of Indigenous females in Australia, enhance social cohesion among different ethnic groups, and promote equality in sports development. The specific recommendations and elaborations are listed below:

1. Enhanced community & family-level engagement

Community and family are important units for the lives Indigenous women. Therefore, it is much easier to motivate Indigenous females with peer influence and activities organized by the local communities. The focus of the events organized should be family-orientated activities and group walking programs, with the issues of cost and safety properly addressed (Hunt, Marshall & Jenkins, 2008). The concept of activities must be meaningful, relevant and sustainable for the Indigenous females, so that lasting effects can be created locally. In addition to reaching out to the families, the community should also have access to high-level organizations in the sports development system, so that community, sports activities and high-performance sports are integrated within a single system.

2. Enhanced qualifications for the coaches

Coaching education in Australia should no more be exclusive for elite coaching. Instead, a more public-oriented teaching program should be developed, with specific courses focusing on the promotion of Indigenous participation. The addition of social science or psychology courses will better equip the coaches for teaching a wider range of people. This is a crucial step for the foundation of the sports development continuum.

3. Locating, nurturing and promoting more inspirational sports figures

In response to the problem of lack of representation, some effort should be made to find more figures that are inspiration for the younger generation in Australia. In the report published by the Australian Government in 2010, a plan of identifying talented Indigenous Australians have already been sketched. This plan provides sports development opportunities for thousands of young athletes. Moreover, cooperation with schools and community will make it easier for the continuation of the plan. Positive Indigenous female sports persons are expected to create long-lasting effects and inspire more young females to break free from convention and participate in sports.

4. Improved government coordination

Indigenous sports programs often suffer from poor coordination between difference government agencies and levels (Crawford, 2009). This source of inefficiency must be eliminated with the establishment of clear common goals between different stakeholders working together. The cooperation between AIS with Netball Australia serves as an effective example of how an alliance, a collaborative effort based on mutual interest is able to achieve something much greater.

5. Better planning to respond to potential barriers against participation

Trust should be considered as the premises for success, between the participants and the event organizers. This is why the significance of community engagement should not be underestimated. Cost of transport and facility accessibility should also be properly addressed, since these factors are important for Indigenous females to take the initial steps (Skinner, Zakus & Cowell, 2008). Funding is more easily gathered when the planners think bigger than sports development with the considerations of health, social cohesion, etc.

6. Customized exercise plans

According to Pressick, Gray, Cole, and Burkett (2016), “group-based programs that include nutrition, exercise and/or sport components for Indigenous adults are effective in achieving health and QoL (Quality of Life) outcome.” Based on the survey conducted, a combination of walking, running and different types of exercises prove to be more acceptable for Indigenous females.

7. Creating a safe environment for Indigenous Australian females

To serve as an effective distraction from the potentially harmful and unhealthy activities, such as gambling, sports facilities and activities must be designed to be attractive enough for indigenous females. Coaches with adequate qualifications and a caring, responsible nature are preferable in schools, so that it is easier for indigenous girls to develop a profound interest in sport activities.

In conclusion, social cohesion and sports development have been proved to be positively correlated with each other. Therefore, it is necessary to combine the goals from different originations and agencies to work towards the common goal of equality. The historical data presented have shown that Australian Indigenous females, especially the young girls, are the most susceptible to lack of sports participation, and therefore among the most disadvantaged groups needing help. Factors such as the male dominance in sports issue coverage by media, the conventional role of females in indigenous households, the increasing influence of social media, the risks of addictive gambling are all barriers that prevent Indigenous females from the benefits of the Australian sports system. In response to these issues, a customized sports continuum is urgently needed, with a bottom-up feedback mechanism. Based on these theories, seven recommendations have been derived, which can be of reference for policy makers. It is also important to ensure that the inclusion programs for Indigenous populations do not interfere with or undermine sports development, or make the latter redundant, since it would completely defeat the original purpose or the programs.

Works Cited

Australian Government. (2010). Australian Sport: the pathway to success. Commonwealth of Australia 2010. Retrieved on 27 August 2017 from: https://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/aust_sport_path/$file/aust_sport_path.pdf

Crawford, D. (2009). The Future of Sport in Australia. Commonwealth of Australia 2009. Retrieved on 27 August 2017 from: https://s3-ap-southeast-2.amazonaws.com/piano.revolutionise.com.au/cups/sportnsw/files/4nsuw9tsewofyalh.pdf

Hing, N., Breen, H., Gordon, A., & Russell, A. (2014). Gambling behavior and gambling risk factors for Indigenous Australian women. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 12(1), 1-20. doi:10.1007/s11469-013-9458-x

Hunt, J., Marshall, A. L., & Jenkins, D. (2008). Exploring the meaning of, the barriers to and potential strategies for promoting physical activity among urban Indigenous Australians. Health Promotion Journal of Australia: Official Journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals, 19(2), 102.

Macdonald, D., Abbott, R., & Jenkins, D. (2012). Physical activity of remote Indigenous Australian women: A postcolonial analysis of lifestyle. Leisure Sciences, 34(1), 39-54. doi:10.1080/01490400.2012.633854

Pressick, E. L., Gray, M. A., Cole, R. L., & Burkett, B. J. (2016). A systematic review on research into the effectiveness of group-based sport and exercise programs designed for Indigenous adults. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport / Sports Medicine Australia, 19(9), 726-732. doi: 10.1016/j.jsams.2015.11.005

Skinner, J., Zakus, D. H., & Cowell, J. (2008). Development through sport: Building social capital in disadvantaged communities. Sport Management Review, 11(3), 253-275. doi:10.1016/S1441-3523(08)70112-8

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