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Essay代写:British banking after the subprime crisis

2019-03-14 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Essay代写范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- British banking after the subprime crisis,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了次贷危机后的英国银行业。2008年的次贷危机爆发后,英国的银行业受到了巨大的冲击,后来在英格兰银行的救市政策下,英国银行业进行了重新整合,但英国境内银行的存贷款业务在金融危机爆发后受到了储户信心下降的影响,多家银行出现了贷款违约或挤兑的现象,加之英国银行倚重同业拆借业务,银行资金的流动性遭受了严重损害。

British banking,英国银行业次贷危机,英国代写,英国论文代写,essay代写

As one of the countries with the most developed financial industry in history, British banking industry has profound capital and a long evolutionary process. With the reopening of the financial sector in 1986, the UK has re-implemented the mixed banking model, allowing Banks to provide comprehensive financial services including securities business. A bank holding group may operate a variety of businesses such as investment banking, commercial banking and retail banking at the same time and, in most cases, focus on the internal management of the bank. And the insurance business that bank group holds concurrently, basically be the insurance company of form of holding subsidiary runs relatively independent. The re-proposed mixed operation mode improves the capital turnover efficiency and profit margin to a certain extent and greatly promotes the development of the banking industry.

The structure of British banking is composed of three parts: the bank of England, local commercial Banks and overseas Banks. British commercial Banks are further divided into retail Banks, secondary Banks and other institutions that accept deposits and loans.

As the central bank, the bank of England takes the rediscount rate as the main adjustment means to supervise financial institutions according to law. Interest rate liberalization has been implemented in the UK, and the reserve requirement ratio is no longer the bank of England's macro-control means.

British commercial Banks are all joint-stock companies based on private ownership. Their businesses are diversified, including traditional deposits and loans, domestic and foreign capital transfer services, professional services, such as investment, insurance and agency services, and special financing services.

The banking industry in the UK also includes a kind of financial companies mainly engaged in deposit and loan business and foreign exchange business. Their main target customers are consumer groups, aiming to provide consumer credit for consumer groups. Some financial companies also operate housing loans. Although the word "bank" does not appear in the name of this kind of "bank", its main business actually belongs to the business scope of commercial Banks.

After the outbreak of the financial crisis in 2008, the impacted British banking industry underwent significant changes. Under the bank of England's bailout policy, the British banking industry was re-integrated. After the outbreak of the financial crisis, the deposit and loan business of British Banks was affected by the decline of depositors' confidence. A number of Banks defaulted on their loans or ran on them. In addition, British Banks relied heavily on inter-bank lending business, which seriously damaged the liquidity of bank funds.

On October 5, 2008, the ftse 100 suffered its biggest one-day fall since 1987, with Banks bearing the brunt. The British government announced that it would inject capital directly into the eight major British banking groups instead of buying bad assets to help the banking sector. The move is aimed at boosting the capital of Banks in a short time to resist the impact of the financial crisis. The bank of England will provide an additional 200 billion pounds in short-term loans to eight Banks as part of the government's rescue plan to help them get their money flowing again.

During the financial crisis, the British government bought a 100% stake in Northern Rock, which suffered a run on the bank. Royal Bank of Scotland and Lloyds Bank, whose business conditions deteriorated sharply, were acquired by the government in 83% and 41% respectively, which cost a huge sum of money. The government's capital injection has promoted the nationalization of bank shares and bank holding groups' assistance to other financial institutions, but the main method is acquisition. The two banking groups remain in the red after lloyds bought hbos and royal bank of Scotland joined abn amro.

Since the financial crisis, Banks generally facing the shortage of capital situation, the Basel under the pressure, the several major Banks have chosen to adopt strategies for the main business, under the environment of mixed management still choose contraction front even scale, major is good at business. HSBC group exited the insurance industry in 2009 and sold its stake in ping an in 2012-13 for $9.4 billion. In addition, HSBC group in 2012 disposed of a total of 26 shares not closely related to the main business, in order to focus on the banking business. Royal bank of Scotland and lloyds because in 2008 the government capital injection to state-owned Banks, in the next few years also adopted the policy contraction, the intention by cutting branches downsizing, in order to meet the more stringent capital requirements, and the two Banks as a local bank group, after the financial crisis, focus more on the development of its domestic business and management.

In 2009, the British government enacted the banking act of 2009, the most important act after the financial crisis. As part of the strategy of the financial crisis, the enactment of this law has achieved some innovations. The act established a regulatory regime for systemic risk, a "special resolution regime" for failing Banks, rules specifically applied to bank failures, and strengthened protections for financial consumers.

In 2012, UK regulators reduced trading risk by requiring all traders in financial products to trade in one market rather than across different product markets. In order to improve the transparency and strengthen the supervision of financial derivatives, the British regulatory authorities once proposed to include derivatives trading in the exchange, but the long-established trading habits of the derivatives market and the difference between the on-site and off-site trading cannot be realized in the short term.

With the outbreak of the financial crisis, various governments issued different response measures, which stabilized the economic level to the greatest extent and laid the foundation for economic recovery. Empirical results show that the impact of government governance on the response to the financial crisis should not be underestimated. Although financial reform cannot completely prevent the occurrence of financial crisis, the financial reform indicators of various countries have a significant impact on the financial system structure after the crisis and play an important role in the recovery of the financial system structure after the crisis.

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