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essay代写-British defense policy toward Europe

2019-02-12 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Essay代写范文

本篇essay代写- British defense policy toward Europe讨论了英国对欧洲的防务政策战后初期到冷战结束,英国借助美国的力量保护欧洲安全,积极推动北约建设,消极对待建立欧洲自己的防务实体。但在90年代后,英国根据欧洲形势调整欧洲政策,转而支持发展西欧的防务力量,尝试构筑一个有利于自己的欧洲安全体系。本篇essay代写51due代写平台整理,供大家参考阅读。

British defense policy,英国对欧洲的防务政策,essay代写,代写,paper代写

From the early postwar period to the end of the cold war, Britain protected European security with the help of American forces, actively promoted the construction of NATO, and passively treated the establishment of Europe's own defense entity. After the 1990s, Britain adjusted its European policy according to the situation in Europe and supported the development of the defense forces in Western Europe.

The outbreak and end of the World War II devastated the continent's balance of power. The European powers were in a state of decline, heavily dependent on the United States economically, and caught between the confrontation between the two superpowers in politics and security. Therefore, in the early postwar period, Britain was faced with an unprecedented complex situation in terms of security. The second is to build a European security system that benefits itself.

At the beginning of the World War II, Britain and France proposed to develop regional joint defense to prevent Germany from rising again and competing with the Soviet union. However, Britain believes that the treaty of Dunkirk is far from meeting the needs of maintaining European security and must also establish a multilateral defense system for western European countries. In January 1948, Britain, always closely following the United States, proposed to form a "regional defense system" by forming a network of defense treaties based on the treaty of Dunkirk. To counter the eastern bloc led by the Soviet union, Britain wanted to combine the defense of Western Europe with the defense strategy of the United States with the help of the United States. In March 1948, Britain, France, Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg formed the "Brussels treaty organization ". This was the first joint defense organization after the World War II. Although the" bujo "organization was established, for Britain, European security still had no guarantee. Britain is still reluctant to abandon its traditional diplomatic style and refuse to get fully involved in European affairs, for fear of losing its leadership in the commonwealth and damaging its image as a "world power". Britain, on the other hand, is unwilling to take on its own responsibility for the security of Europe. Its first task was to draw the United States into the European security system and make the United States assume the responsibility to safeguard European security. In the early postwar period, there was a debate about the future model of the European security system, and there was a rule of "two pillars," a united Europe and the United States sharing the defense of equal nations. The UK believes that if western European integration is achieved, with a strong defence system and a strong economy, it could encourage us isolationism. To this end, the British labor government has spared no effort to promote the Atlantic alliance led by the United States. In 1950, the Korean war broke out. In order to prevent the spread of the war and "defend Europe ", the United States proposed to strengthen the defense of Western Europe, establish a joint European defense force composed of western European countries, and rearm west Germany in NATO.

American proposals to rearm west Germany did not mesh with British strategic thinking. Finally, under the pressure of the "stick and carrot" policy of the United States, the United States agreed in principle to admit west Germany into the defense of Western Europe. Forced by the United States, the French government, on October 24, 1950, was put forward by the prime minister Sullivan's plan to establish a "European army" including the west German army, namely the Sullivan plan. After the introduction of the Sullivan plan, the British labor government made a public statement in the house of Commons, supported the idea of an integrated NATO force proposed by the United States, but disapproved of the Sullivan plan. After bevan, give up the idea of "third force", wholeheartedly rely on the Atlantic alliance, as a European security guarantee, at the same time, adhere to the principle of government cooperation between European Union, against supranationalism integration way, John praveen plan with European army as the core concept of European defence group, both stressed European features and adhere to the principle of integration, is considered to be a challenge to the policy. In the 1950-1952 negotiations, which resulted in the treaty of the European defence community, which included article 132, they sent only observers.

In October 1951, the British conservative party came to power. European federalists expected a change in British policy. Although the conservatives urged the government to take an active part in the discussion of the establishment of a "European army" under the labor government, they showed unprecedented caution on this issue after the conservatives came to power. British policy has not changed. At a press conference in Rome on November 28, 1951, Eden made it clear that the new conservative government, like its Labour predecessor, had no intention of joining the European defence community. From then until 1954, on the other hand, Eden worked with the Americans, the French, the Germans -- and especially the French -- to prove that Britain could not join the European defense community, but was in fact about as good as participating. It is not difficult to see that the attitude of the new British government is still the same: on the one hand, it supports the Sullivan plan; on the other hand, it keeps a distance and never participates in it. After the British decided to undertake the obligation to aid European defence group, Eden said: "we have been in the United Kingdom and the European defence group established a formal and special relationship, it clearly shows that we are associated with the group's future, and on its side, although we did not take part in this group."

In August 1954, French citizens refused to approve the Sullivan plan, which made the idea of establishing a European defense community impossible. This aroused strong dissatisfaction in the United States, and the United States government expressed that it would make necessary changes to its European policy. In order to ensure that the United States will continue to maintain its commitment to the north Atlantic and the Western Europe defence, rearm in Germany or in order to avoid the issue to take unilateral action, Britain's prime minister, aidan put forward a new proposal to replace the joint European defence community, the core is Germany and Italy joined the Brussels treaty concluded in 1948 as a substitute, according to the Paris agreement forged an alliance of Western Europe in 1954, countries in Western Europe at the time as to seek common security and defense of a way to compromise.

In October 1964, the labor party came into power again, and the government of the labor party was in an extremely serious financial situation. In order to reverse the international balance of payments deficit, cut down the national expenditure, carry out the austerity in the aspect of defense, gradually remove the obligations assumed around the world, and consciously sacrifice the world policy to get closer to Europe. In front of the growing Soviet military potential, the current economic and social reality, as well as a superpower in the field of strategic nuclear weapons to achieve the balance of power, in fact, the United States is increasingly estranged relationship between Britain and America have in Vietnam war, the British trade continues to far away from the commonwealth and focus on Europe, Britain chose to strengthen the pillar of Europe, the Atlantic alliance to save appropriate self-defense force. On the premise of adhering to the Atlantic alliance, Britain naturalized the Anglo-American relations, adjusted the diplomatic vision, put the "diplomatic focus on the European continent", and intervened in the European affairs as "one of them".

The conservative government led by Margaret thatcher, though emphasizing the "special relationship" between Britain and the United States in its foreign policy, did not hinder its enthusiasm for European political cooperation. The thatcher government, which always attached great importance to NATO and the "special relationship between Britain and the United States", took an active part in the reconstruction of the western European Union after a period of hesitation. In March 1987, as Britain's foreign secretary Jeffrey hao made a speech in Brussels, called on Western Europe without prejudice to the premise of the Atlantic alliance strengthen defense cooperation, take more responsibility for the common safety, western European Union the Hague conference in October, the problems to strengthen European pillar were from principle to practice advice delegates caused great interest. Britain also took practical steps to strengthen military and defense cooperation with France and west Germany.

The change of Britain's attitude on the issue of security and defense cooperation in Europe is an integral part of the response of western European countries to the complex European situation and the changes of the international situation after the 1980s. After the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in December 1979, the international situation plummet, military confrontation between the east and the west in Europe intensified, this kind of situation and the resulting in the early 80 s European missile crisis, and the Geneva disarmament talks broke down in the United States and the Soviet union to Western Europe under tension stress, in 1983, the United States "Star Wars" plan is put forward, shake the foundations of NATO nuclear deterrence strategy, more make western European countries to doubt the reliability of the us nuclear "umbrella". Acutely aware of the weakness of their position, they are determined to seek to strengthen Western Europe's own security and defence cooperation. The change of the relationship between the United States and the Soviet union and the adjustment of the American strategic thought make it urgent for Western Europe to strengthen their security and defense cooperation and policy coordination, Britain is no exception. Of course, the discussion of defense cooperation among western European countries makes Britain, together with France and west Germany, at the center of the European stage and able to play a relatively prominent role, which is undoubtedly in line with Britain's own interests.

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