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Essay代写:Restrictions on begging in early modern Britain

2019-02-11 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Essay代写范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- Restrictions on begging in early modern Britain,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了近代早期英国对乞讨的限制。近代早期英国政府对乞讨的限制有一个逐步完善的过程。首先,英国政府让乞讨者回到自己的教区去,颁发乞讨执照与徽章。然后主张给予真正穷者以救济,给身强力壮的乞丐以改造坊工作。最后,则将部分乞丐安置于慈善院给以院内救济,对流民乞丐以严惩。

Restrictions,英国对乞讨的限制,英国代写,英国论文代写,essay代写

In the middle ages, based on Christian theories of "the interdependence of rich and poor" and "the sanctity of poverty", the poor were seen as god's "children" and beggars were seen as "angels" in disguise. Beggars therefore have legitimate grounds for existence, and even the Franciscans have encouraged priests to beg - as mendicants. Begging is also tolerated by the government and society. After the black death, Labour was scarce and many farmers were no longer willing to accept harsh exploitation from their landowners. At the same time, the abundance of social material production provided favorable conditions for beggars to make a living. As a result, there were quite a few wandering beggars in British cities and countryside. In 1349, the British government to protect the interests of manor has issued the first limit begging statute, Ordinance of Labourers. In addition to making it mandatory for workers to accept government-capped wages, it also prohibits people from giving handouts to beggars.

Although some devout Christians have proposed restrictions on begging in the middle ages, such as nassar in verona in the 10th century, in the late middle ages, both the government and the people did not strictly enforce the laws restricting begging, and beggars were still tolerated by the society. Because the British working people's life is relatively good due to the long-term stagnation of population and the relaxation of the relationship between people and land. However, when Britain entered the early modern times, with the influence of social factors such as population growth, enclosure movement and the dissolution of monasteries, poverty had become an important issue of concern to the whole society, especially the government. Therefore, begging has increasingly become a social issue of common concern.

In modern Europe, Christian humanists were the first to put forward the idea of eliminating beggars, and their ideas had a profound impact on social elites and the royal government. Erasmus, a famous Dutch Christian humanist writer, once said: "a strong beggar needs a job, not a handout. His ideas were widely welcomed in Britain. Britain's elite are ahead of their time in curbing begging, and some of their proposals have been adopted by the government. In 1531 the humanist William Marshall wrote legislation to eliminate the "pernicious evil" of begging, and in 1531 he suggested that in every parish poor supervisors should be appointed, and that poor children should be sent to apprenticeships and employed at reasonable wages.

Members of the church of England also advocated restrictions on beggars. They used their status and ideas to influence the secular government. For example, the senior priest levy once told king Edward vi about beggars. He said: "to be a man of honor, a man of veneration, an honest rich man, especially a mayor, a mayor, a city official, a mayor, a policeman, or any such official, to see beggars on the streets, often begging, is the greatest disgrace in the world, the complete destruction of god. There ought not to be such people here, because they lack the kind charity of the poor, or the correction of his faults. Puritanism also gave high attention to begging. At the end of the 16th century, William perkins, an important Puritan thinker in Britain, advocated different treatment of beggars. To the truly deserving beggars, William perkins once said, "the will of god is that the poor have a right to share in every man's goods, and therefore it is a disgrace to god that they should not be helped if they do not wander, beg, and cry." But to the able-bodied beggars, he said, "because these bold and noisy beggars take all handouts from others, the distribution of relief is neither wise nor equal" and therefore cannot be given to them.

By the end of the seventeenth century, poverty in England had not yet been completely solved, and beggars still wandered about from time to time. Daniel Defoe, a social reformer dedicated to dalby Thomas in 1689, put forward a more definite opinion on the elimination of beggars in his book the plan. First of all, he was full of sympathy for the beggars, and said, "I do not believe that any man is so humble as to be entirely willing to beg. Therefore, I am sure that any beggar should be given relief or punishment, or both. Although he thought that out of greed beggars should be punished like a dog. But he argued for a different approach to begging, saying, "if he begs because he is poor, which may be due to idleness or accident; If it is the latter, he should be relieved; if it is the former, he should be punished; but, at the same time, he should be relieved, for no matter what a man has done, he should not be allowed to starve to death. In order to eliminate beggars, he advocated the establishment of an annuity bureau, allowing people to pay a certain annuity when they are young and in good health, so that they can receive an annuity or be admitted to a workhouse in case of accidental disability or illness. If everyone did so and the money was honestly managed, begging and poverty would be eliminated forever. In the 16th and 17th centuries, both church members and social elites made timely Suggestions on how to limit begging, which also pushed the government to constantly improve its poverty relief policies. At the same time, only the government's laws can really restrict begging completely, because the government's restriction measures are both direct and powerful.

In early modern times, the British government's restriction on begging was a process of gradual improvement. It consists of three stages: in the early stages, returning beggars to their parishes, granting them begging licences and badges. In the middle period, advocates to give relief to the truly poor, to the strong beggars to transform the workshop work. In the later period, some beggars were placed in charity institutions for relief, and vagrant beggars were severely punished. The reason why the government imposed restrictions on begging was reflected in the law on the punishment of beggars and vagrants issued by Henry viii in 1531. According to the decree, beggars and vagrants "are the mother and root of all kinds of crimes, which can bring about constant thieves, murderers or other vicious crimes and major atrocities every day, which will make god angry, and the subjects restless and damaged, which is also a great infringement on the public welfare of the kingdom". One of the first ACTS of the Tudor government to restrict begging was the law against vagrants and beggars of 1495. It said that various beggars who were unable to work returned within six weeks of the decree to stay in the hundred families where they had last lived, were most familiar to them or had been born. Begging will not be allowed while staying in this area. The offending beggar will wear a cangue for three days and will be given only bread and water. By 1531, the law on the punishment of beggars and vagrants was enacted. Here, the government decree allows beggars who can't work to beg, but there are three restrictions. First, begging must be limited to a certain area, or be punished by wearing the cangue. Second, beggars will register their names and issue begging certificates. Third, giving only food handouts. If they break these rules, they will be punished. If there is no begging license, the offender will be fined. Beggars who beg in different areas are licensed with different signs. Students from Oxford and Cambridge universities without licenses and sailors from shipwrecks abroad cannot beg, or they will be punished as vagrants. Friars of the order of Francis should only beg in his birthplace.

In 1536, the British government enacted the law on the punishment of able-bodied vagrants and beggars. It rules, each city, county and town all the managers and members should not only be obtained for the poor, voluntary and kindness charity to help find and management, and "on their rigorous and smart way to find help, so that none of them in the city, county, town and parish lazy and openly wandering and begging alms, and make all villains and each vagabonds and strong beggar was arranged continuously work". The feature of this bill is to help beggars and provide them with jobs. Under the relief for the poor act of 1555, beggars who left their parish or town were given a licence with a seal and a badge. Here, "they must wear a badge on the largest cloth, visible on their chests and backs, and this conspicuous badge is given to him by the mayor of the city and by the head of the city council or parish." Exceeding the limit will be punished like the beggar. This practice effectively stigmatizes beggars in order to enable those whose lives are truly threatened by hunger to beg.

By the late 16th century, a new breed of able-bodied but jobless poor was emerging in Britain, and the number of able-bodied beggars began to increase. Between 1569 and 1572, the British government took more severe measures against beggars and even flogged some of them. Therefore, A Whipping Campaign was launched to ban beggars. In the poor law of 1572, in addition to imposing a poor tax to subsidize poor families and arrange work, the beggar child is also limited. "If the child leaves the master or mistress, or is taken away, the master may under the Labour act make the child a servant." Here, in fact, they turn the beggar boy into a working man, and prevent him from begging and wandering around.

After the urban government and local government survey of the poor, the government found that there are many strong poor people who are willing to work but have no job. Therefore, in 1576, the royal government's "work for the poor and avoid laziness act" required all towns to provide means of production for the poor, and put the lazy into the transformation of labor, at the same time, the excessive employment of handicraft production made the government give some recognition to beggars. A decree issued by the government in 1593 also provided for demobilized soldiers. It required the local administrator to provide the demobilized soldiers with an annuity, which would be completely deprived if they begged on the road. The government's relief for the poor act of 1598 placed a further restriction on the granting of almsgiving to beggars, stipulating that they could only receive food from beggars, and that they must obtain the consent of the parish wardens and councillors.

By the early seventeenth century, the government imposed strict restrictions on able-bodied beggars. In 1610, the government of James I issued an edict against scoundrels, vagabonds, and beggars. The edict requires every county to establish rehabilitation workshops, "for scoundrels, vagabonds, beggars, and other lazy and disorderly persons... Both have to provide jobs to transform." The early stuarts, so to speak, punished beggars more than they helped them. By 1646, many judges simply flogged and punished wandering beggars without providing them with houses or jobs. Therefore, beggars have not been eliminated completely in the whole society.

During the restoration period, in order to limit the vagrancy of beggars, the government issued the better relief law for the poor in the kingdom in 1662. It corrects the police and tithes for their failure to arrest tramps and able-bodied beggars. It states that magistrates have the power to order the police and tithes to award two shillings to those who arrest vagrants and able-bodied beggars whom they themselves have not arrested, and that the police and tithes who refuse or fail to pay the reward will be criticized by magistrates. If he arrested vagabonds and stout beggars who should have been arrested in that county by the police and tithes, he received two shillings from the police and tithes, which in effect encouraged the magistrates to set strict limits on the strong beggars. By the end of the 17th century, able-bodied beggars were severely restricted and most of them were sent to workhouses and reform workshops.

By the early 18th century, government restrictions on beggars in Britain remained strict. In 1714, the government ordered beggars who affected social order to be flogged or put into rehabilitation workshops. The person that partial does not have labor ability is sent to learn art place, undertake the labor that can do one's best, able-bodied person is put into transform square compulsory labor. In 1744 the government amended and strengthened the law on miffians and vagabonds by increasing the reward for arresting beggars from two shillings to five shillings and, in particular, ten shillings. Since then, the government has imposed severe punishment on the beggars. Those who do not want to be rescued from his parish are put into the training institute. Here, workers should be forced to work in factories or schools, and those who cannot work will be rescued by the government.

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