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Essay代写:The social composition of British universities during the transition period

2019-01-30 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Essay代写范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- The social composition of British universities during the transition period,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了过渡时期英国大学的社会构成。相比于中世纪,过渡时期英国大学的社会构成发生了明显的变化。贵族、中间阶层、社会下层人士之子都成为大学社会构成的重要组成部分。这一时期大学社会构成具有复杂性、多样性以及世俗性与宗教性并存等特征。大学社会构成的变化增强了大学与社会的联系,推动着大学由传统向现代的转型。

social composition,英国大学社会构成,英国代写,英国论文代写,essay代写

The transitional period is an important period for Britain to transform from the traditional agricultural society to the modern industrial society. Under the background of social changes, British university education also goes through the change from tradition to modernity. During this period, college enrollment scale, teaching content and social composition all changed significantly. But in the domestic research to the western higher education history. Modern universities and medieval universities, as the origin of modern universities, have attracted much attention. Little attention has been paid to the transition from medieval universities to modern ones. Even if occasionally involved, he likens this period to an "ice age" of university development, in which the development of universities stagnates. In view of this, this paper will examine the situation, characteristics and influence of the university society from the perspective of its social composition, and show the development of university education in Britain in the transitional period.

College social composition refers to the social background of college students. Due to the transition period, British universities were mainly Oxford University and Cambridge university. During this period, the social composition of British universities specifically refers to the social origin of the students of these two traditional universities. Compared with the middle ages, the social composition of British universities changed significantly in the transitional period, which is reflected in the following aspects.

First of all, it was the children of the aristocracy who went to school. Here the aristocracy includes "duke, marquis, count, viscount, baron five hereditary aristocracy. They also included barons, knights, knights and gentlemen. The nobles were also called the gentry. The entrance of the children of the aristocracy is a new phenomenon in the British university education in the transitional period. In the middle ages, the sons of the aristocracy were often educated as servants to the higher classes of their families, rather than attending college. According to statistics, during the 177 years from 1307 to 1485, the universities of Oxford and Cambridge enrolled 30,000-45,000 students, among which only 88 were children of aristocrats. It can be said that the entrance of the children of the aristocracy in the middle ages was an exception rather than a common phenomenon. But this centuries-old tradition changed in the interim. It became "fashionable" for the sons of the transitional aristocracy to attend college. During this period the great nobles and gentry sent their successors to college. From 1575 to 1639, of the 19,816 students on the Oxford register, 8,456 came from aristocratic families. Students from traditional families make up about half of the total enrollment. According to the statistics of professor Lawrence stone, between 1603 and 1630, the number of nobles increased by about three times, but the number of nobles' children enrolled in school increased by four times every year. It can be seen that it became a common phenomenon for the children of aristocrats to receive college education in the transitional period.

The sons of the middle classes are also flocking to universities. A middle - class person is someone between the aristocracy and the lower classes. It mainly includes "urban citizens with civil rights and rural yeoman farmers". Among them, citizens mainly refer to urban craftsmen, businessmen, lawyers, doctors and other professionals. Yeomanry farmers were mainly yeomanry farmers under the gentry. Historians often refer to this group as "commoners".

The race among the sons of the middle classes to go to university is also a new phenomenon in British university education in the transitional period. The son of the yeomanry in the medieval countryside was tied to the land. Engage in agricultural production. Sons of citizens are often trained in professional skills through apprenticeships. They rarely have the chance to go to college. But in the interim, as wealth grew, the middle classes became enthusiastic about college. Some successful businessmen usually send their children to college. : John Assam is a London businessman. He sent his second son to Christ's college, Cambridge. John's eldest son, Thomas, sent his son to be educated at queen's college, Cambridge, although he did not go to university himself. Some wealthy yeoman farmers also sent their children to college. In the admissions register of gaius college, Cambridge. From 1600 to 1640, the percentage of students of yeomanite origin increased from 7% to 15%. Not only that. Enrollment is rising across the middle class. According to statistics, in the late 16th and early 17th centuries, students from middle class families accounted for more than half of the total enrollment of Oxford University. They became a new group in the transitional university society.

The poor and the clergy are still part of the university community, but their Numbers have fallen sharply. Medieval universities were mainly established by the church to train and train clergy. Students often have the status of priests, from the church to receive salary, maintain life. Therefore, college students at that time were mainly poor children who wanted to enter the church and obtain a stable source of income or clerics in the church who wanted to improve their preaching skills. For example, the example widely existed in the archives of church history in the middle ages is that the clerics were recommended by the bishops to study Latin, logic, preaching and other knowledge in universities for several years. After completing his studies, he returned to his former parish. But during the transition period, the reformation took place in Britain. The reformation deprived the church of its property and weakened its financial support for universities. In this context, universities are gradually implementing paid education. As a result, children from poor families have less access to education, and their share of the university social fabric has declined significantly. Between 1580 and 1612, no more than 2% of Oxford students were from poor families. In addition, the reformation forced monks and nuns to return to the common religion. As a result, the number of priests was greatly reduced from 35,000 in the early 16th century to 15,000 in the early 17th century. In this context, there has been a corresponding decline in the number of clergy who have gone to university for training. Between 1580 and 1612 the clergy made up 2-11% of the students at Oxford.

The lack of a detailed and comprehensive entry form makes it difficult to get a direct picture of the social make-up of British universities during the transition period. However, through the above analysis, we can find that British college students in the transitional period come from all walks of life. This is evidenced by the family background of the students at gaius college, Cambridge, the best preserved in the admissions register. Among the college's 1584-1604 students were 26 sons of knights, 23 sons of gentlemen,41 owners of moderate wealth, 12 sons of yeomen farmers, 9 priests, 6 sons of londoners, 1 son of a magistrate, 1 son of a doctor of law, and 1 owner of small wealth. In this register, knights, gentlemen and part of the middle wealth owners belong to the aristocracy, yeomanry, londoners, chief executive, doctor of law and other part of the middle wealth owners belong to the middle class, priests belong to the clergy, small wealth owners come from the lower class. So at that time, people of all social classes had the opportunity to go to college.

Through the investigation of the social structure of British universities in the transitional period, we can find that the social structure of universities in this period has the following characteristics.

Firstly, the social composition of British universities in the transitional period is characterized by complexity and diversity. The college students in the transition period came from a wide range of social groups, including the great nobility, a large number of small gentry, a growing number of wealthy businessmen, yeomen farmers, lawyers, doctors and other middle class children, and even the poor children. Historians have long stressed the role of the sons of the aristocracy and the middle classes in universities, while ignoring the existence of the sons of the poor. Elizabethan scholar William sharieson complained that universities increasingly deprived the poor of access to education. In the middle of the 20th century, with the rise of social history studies. Historians have largely taken up the idea that the sons of aristocrats and the middle classes flocked to universities on the premise that they deprived the poor of an education. From the above investigation, we can find that the children of the poor did not disappear because of the increase of the children of the aristocracy and the children of the rich. They were still part of the university society at that time.

In the transitional period, some poor children were able to receive college education and had a specific social environment. First of all, since the middle ages, Britain has formed the tradition of donation. People from all walks of life donate property or property to the university. Keep the university going. Before the reformation, the main body of school donation was bishop, abbot and other religious personages. After the reformation, the donors were mainly secular aristocrats and some wealthy businessmen, lawyers and other middle class people. Between 1560 and 1640, they donated 500 grants to the two universities for the poor children to live and complete their studies. Secondly, in the transitional period, Britain was a very typical hierarchical society. Some of the children of the poor, talented poor families were servants to accompany the noble children to school. Sir Peter fledgeville's son, John, for example, attended one college and then another for four years, all the while accompanied by the son of a brilliant poor sharecropper. Attending school with a servant was very common at that time. It was very unseemly for the children of the nobility to go to school without servants. The emergence of servitude provided an opportunity for the children of poor families to go to university. They could support themselves as servants or receive education together with their young masters.

In a specific social environment, with the influx of aristocrats, gentry and middle class children into universities, the children from poor families were not completely excluded from universities. Transitional university societies comprise all sectors of society, including the poor. This is a remarkable feature of the social make-up of British universities in the transitional period.

Secondly, university society is becoming increasingly secular. The main body of university society has always been an important issue concerned by scholars. But their views differ. Professor mark Curtis, using the example of gaia college, argues that the sons of gentry and aristocracy are "pouring into universities" and becoming "the dominant factor in the student body". Ms Simon draws a different conclusion from the same table: "the growth in the number of gentlemen is not obvious. On the contrary, this set of figures shows that the number of urban middle class increases dramatically as the lower class decreases."

Scholars differ on the social composition of universities. The main reason for this is that the boundaries of British social classes were rather vague during the transition period. Some successful businessmen, professionals and other members of the middle class often pose as gentlemen. Professor Curtis divides his students into three groups: gentlemen, professionals, businessmen and small business owners. But professionals and big businessmen, he said, had "privileges and responsibilities in the towns as the gentry had privileges and responsibilities in the country". Thus, professionals and businessmen were included in the aristocracy, and the conclusion was drawn that a large number of rich, aristocratic sons poured into universities. Although successful people in the middle class can be called gentlemen and climb into the upper class, not everyone can enjoy a higher social status, according to ms Simon. Therefore, the inclusion of the middle class into the aristocracy is open to question. If you look at the middle class separately. You would see the sons of the middle class instead of the gentry, the sons of the aristocracy flooding into the universities.

The author thinks that under the background of the complicated social structure and vague social stratification in the transitional period of Britain, it is of great significance to discuss which class of people has become the main body of university society. However, if we look at it from another Angle, we will find that whether the student body is the aristocrat or the son of the middle class, it indicates that the secular student body gradually replaced the religious student body in British universities in the transitional period and became the main body of university society. The main body of university society changed from the clergy in the middle ages to the secular people in the transitional period. This is a remarkable feature of the development of British university education in the transitional period.

In addition, the social structure of universities in the transitional period still has religious characteristics. During the transition period, religious reforms took place in Britain, resulting in a sharp decrease in the proportion of the clergy in the university society. But the reformation was not about proscribing religion, it was about replacing Catholicism with a state religion. After the reformation, England still needed to train protestant clergy, known as anglicans. Therefore, the reformation did not deprive the universities of Oxford and Cambridge of the function of training clergy. In fact, the reformation "expanded rather than reduced the religious responsibilities of the two universities".

The religious nature of the social composition of British universities in the transitional period is mainly manifested in two aspects. One is that the sons of the clergy flock to the university. After the reformation, Britain gradually abolished celibacy for priests, who could marry and have children like secular people. During the transition more and more sons of priests went to university in order to join the church. The proportion of sons of priests at Oxford rose from 5% in 1600 to 15% in 1637, 21% in 1661 and 29% in 1810. Second, there are still active clergy who go to universities for training. During the reformation, all the British monarchs emphasized the religious legitimacy and regarded the maintenance of religious legitimacy as an important expression of political loyalty. And the university is to inculcate loyalty and orthodox religion to the people, it is the main place to train anglicans. It is political necessity that makes college education so important. "It is precisely because universities are the base for the training of parish priests that the government is so interested in them." As a result, English universities were still the main training ground for the clergy after the reformation. During this period, a number of religious colleges were established in Britain, mainly for priests or those who were ready to serve the church. For example, bishop fox established the college of corpus christi, which mainly recruited priests in the bishopric, in an attempt to train them into protestants with humanistic ideas and who could pray for the public.

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