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essay代写-Modern British theory of the origin of morality

2019-01-29 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Essay代写范文

本篇essay代写- Modern British theory of the origin of morality讨论了英国近代道德起源理论。与中世纪主流伦理学思想相比,英国近代道德哲学在考察道德起源时的理论视角实现了从神到人的转变,即道德的基础根源于人或人性,而不再是根源于上帝或神启。于是,人们道德行为的动机和目的,不再与神有关,而是直接与人相关。在人的激情冲动面前,理性是软弱的。作为理性的命令即“自然法”本身也是软弱无力的。因此,在国家权力产生之前,理性法则根本无法约束人们的感性冲动。本篇essay代写51due代写平台整理,供大家参考阅读。

origin of morality,英国近代道德起源理论,essay代写,代写,paper代写

Hobbes' theory of morality and the origin of morality is embodied in his political philosophy. In examining the origin of human society and state and other political issues, Hobbes began from the "natural state of man." He sought for man's "natural right" from the passion of man in the "state of nature", and deduced "natural law" based on "natural right" and man's rationality. But for Hobbes reason is weak in the face of man's passions. The law of nature itself, as a rational imperative, is weak. Therefore, before the emergence of state power, the law of reason can not restrain people's emotional impulse. In the state of nature, although there is a law of nature, there is still a state of war between people. In other words, "natural law" is still powerless to ensure human safety and survival. Hobbes further believed that in order to solve this dilemma, people can only form a strong state by making a contract with each other and transferring part of their rights to one or some people, so as to defend the authority and effectiveness of "natural law".

This is the logic of national sovereignty, the leviathan. However, from the arrangement of chapters in leviathan, we can find that Hobbes did not use any title directly related to the word "morality" to name a chapter to discuss moral issues. This is not because Hobbes does not value morality when he discusses natural law and the origin of the state, but because he regards the rational law of nature itself as a moral law. In the discussion of natural law in chapter 15 of leviathan, Hobbes said: "the justice, gratitude, modesty, justice, mercy and other natural laws I have mentioned before are also good; In other words, they are both virtues and vice is vice. So Hobbes declared, "the science of these natural laws is the only true moral philosophy."

In Hobbes, man's self - preserving passion comes first. For the purpose of safety and self-protection, people make moral rules to regulate people's communication behavior under the guidance of rationality. Therefore, while serving people's passion, the moral law itself also regulates this passion to a certain extent. The purpose of regulation is to better satisfy these passions.

On this basis, Hobbes demonstrates from two aspects that "morality originates from man's self-preservation". On the one hand, when people make moral evaluation of the behavior of others, their starting point is the nature of inner self-love. That is, I approve of an action of another person and call it a moral good, because it is in my own interest: "good and evil are the bynames of our appetites and dislikes." According to his own taste and aversion, "sometimes he praises an action, that is, it is good in name... "On the other hand, when people do moral behavior, that is, in the implementation of moral law, its internal motivation is not out of love or self-preservation intentions. Precisely because the intention of performing the law is self-love or self-protection, the possibility of people actively and conscientiously performing the moral rules is very limited, so the fulfillment of the law ultimately depends on the compulsion of the sovereign. This is the approach of Hobbes' political philosophy.

Hobbes was opposed to all of these ideas by the early emotionalist hutchinson. In hutchinson's opinion, as a kind of good, virtue cannot and should not be derived from people's self-love or self-protection intention, and those behaviors that obey moral laws based on the compulsion of state sovereignty are not real moral behaviors at all. On the basis of criticizing hobbesian ethics, hutchison established his moral system of benevolence.

In the specific arguments against Hobbes' moral system, hodgson first criticizes Hobbes' presupposition of human nature. According to hutchinson, we should not view human nature as purely selfish. There is a selfish side to human nature, but there is also a benevolent side. This "heart of love" is something we are born with. It is "our instinct to think ahead of all our interests". It is our "moral sense".

Based on this presupposition of human nature, in the first two chapters of on the origin of moral concepts of good and evil, hodgson makes a comprehensive refutation of Hobbes' views on the basic role of self-love in human's "moral evaluation" and "moral behavior".

In the first section, hodgson explicitly negates Hobbes' opinion. He thinks that people praise an action as a moral good, not out of consideration for their own interests, that is, not based on their inner self-love nature, but based on their natural moral sense. Although people sometimes appreciate a vice based on their own self-interest, this appreciation is not really recognized by people's inner moral sense. In the end he came to the conclusion that moral sense could not be dispelled by personal concerns.

Second, there is the question of the basis of moral behavior. In the second section, hutchison first criticized the idea that moral behavior can originate from people's self-love, denying that these self-love motives can be the real foundation of people's moral behavior. The real basis or motive for moral behavior, then, is "some kind of decision in our nature", the "heart of love" in people's nature. In this way, based on the benevolent nature of human nature, hutchison reinterpreted the four virtues that were commonly talked about in ancient Greece, namely "temperance", "courage", "prudence" and "justice". He believes that these qualities are appreciated for being called "virtues" because of the benevolent motive behind them: "they are characterized by the general pursuit of the common good, and by the expression of feelings towards the rational."

It should be pointed out here that when hodgson completely rejects Hobbes' moral theory from the above two aspects, he himself goes to a certain extreme.

If only the basis of moral behavior lies in the heart of love, if the quality is a virtue, but also because the owner of the quality inner moral sense, so, hutchison has eliminated the justice and humanity the fundamental difference between the two kinds of virtue, so as to make the true virtue is only love, and justice is nothing but a manifestation of love virtue.

Specifically, hutchison's fault lies in his failure to recognize the tension between the following two characteristics of the virtue of justice when he simply ascribed justice to benevolence: on the one hand, the principle of justice and the universal observance of the principle of justice are essential to the existence of human society; On the other hand, there is insufficient motivation for people to abide by this principle in their interactions with each other. That is to say, due to the generally selfish nature of human hearts, it is difficult for people to consciously and voluntarily abide by the rules of justice in daily life based on benevolence. Therefore, in order to maintain the existence of the society, we must seek the internal basis and motivation of righteous behavior from the selfish nature rather than the benevolent nature. Therefore, fundamentally, the authority of the rule of justice still needs to be maintained by the power of the government in the form of clear law. People's compliance with the rules of justice still needs to be enforced by the power of the state. This is the point that Hobbes is trying to make in leviathan.

So, in order to really address the question of the foundations and motives of moral behavior, it's not enough to just rely on hodgson's theory, we have to go back to Hobbes to some extent, although this return is not a simple inheritance of Hobbes' theory. And the person who actually did it was Hume.

Like hutchinson, Hume belongs to the school of emotionalism. He generally inherited the criticism of emotionalists on Hobbes' "selfish moral system" and was also committed to building a "moral system of benevolence". But he didn't do what hutchinson did with Hobbes. At the same time, he proposed a relatively perfect moral system through the critical transformation of Hobbes' theory. We still start from the fundamental point, namely Hume's presupposition of human nature.

Hume is different from Hobbes in that he thinks that human nature has both selfish and benevolent sides, but at the same time Hume is different from hodgson in that he thinks that this kind of benevolent nature is only a kind of "limited sympathy". Hume believes that such "compassion" limited only can push people to do limited moral behavior, and for some with the requirements of the urgency of moral behavior, it will show the underpowered, and to explore the inner base of this kind of virtue when people can no longer turned to compassion, can only turn to self-compassion or selfishness. Therefore, aiming at the issue of the basis or motive for the emergence and development of justice virtue, Hume inherited and reformed Hobbes' theory of natural law and the theory of social origin, and established his own theory about the origin and basis of justice virtue and the motive of justice virtue.

Both Hume and Hobbes believe that justice originates from human selfishness and rational conventions based on selfishness. The law of justice is the law of human reason. At the same time, in order to better satisfy people's selfish nature, they put some degree of constraints and restrictions on this nature. He repeatedly stated bluntly that "selfishness is the original motive for the establishment of justice" and "egoism is the real root of the law of justice".

After analyzing the psychological basis for people to create the rule of justice, Hume also carefully analyzed two kinds of internal motivations for people to fulfill the rule, namely the "natural binding force" and "moral binding force". "Natural restraint" refers to the selfish nature of people, which to some extent constrains a person to abide by the law of justice for his own selfish interests. Although "moral binding force" is called "moral", the mechanism of this motivation is people's "good reputation". If people abide by the law of justice, they will get moral approval from others, which to some extent satisfies people's "vanity".

So Hume's theory of the basis for the emergence and development of human justice is very similar to Hobbes'. West JiWeiKe in his book an endnote also talked about this kind of similar: "in the theory of human nature, he and Hobbes on justice and has broad consensus from the initial correlation, and as well as Hobbes argues that justice for compliance in some already established the private good is able to sustain the existence of social order."

However, as to the basis or motive of virtue of benevolence, Hume goes back to hodgson's view. Hume believes that love and for love of virtue, is because people do charity behavior when the heart with the nature of based on sympathy "good motivation", in the text he repeatedly stressed: "if there is no independent of the moral sense in the human nature of some kind of good behavior motivation, any behavior cannot is kind or is morally good." Hume makes a clear distinction between the basis on which the two moral ACTS of justice and benevolence are generated: on the basis of righteous virtue, he is inclined to the "selfish" nature of human beings described by Hobbes, while on the basis of benevolence, he is inclined to the "benevolent" nature of human beings described by hutchinson. So does Hume prefer selfishness or benevolence in terms of the basis of people's moral evaluation or the attribution of intrinsic motivation? How should he explain the origin of the moral good attributes of justice and benevolence? Therefore, Hume urgently needs to provide a new "moral evaluation theory" to re-explain the connotation of the word "moral", so as to make justice as a moral good become possible. So how does Hume develop his theory of moral evaluation?

Hume introduces Locke's concept of "secondary nature" when he examines the moral attributes of good and evil. According to him, moral good or evil is the pleasant or unpleasant feeling generated in the mind of moral evaluators when they "observe" the evaluation object based on their own natural sympathy. This kind of pleasant or unpleasant feeling is also called "moral sense" by Hume. Therefore, the good and evil attributes derived from the evaluation of the subject's inner moral sense are fundamentally not the nature of the evaluation object itself, but the evaluation of the subject's inner feelings.

Compared with the general theory of moral evaluation, Hume's theory is subversive. General moral, no matter how enormous differences between them on the point of view, but in looking at properties of moral good and evil, usually from the perspective of evaluation objects or behavior main body analysis: an act or a quality is not good or depends on whether the choice of actors consistently conforms to the wise or middle path, or whether the behavior the behavior of the driver will only out of kindness, or depends on whether the doer subjective motivation for natural kindness blent, and so on. Only Hume in analyzing the moral attribute of behavior clearly turned to the evaluation of the subject. The significance of this turn is significant, and Hume himself declared that this turn should be regarded as "a significant progress in critical science".

Thus, in a real sense, the moral character of an act or quality is simply the result of the spectator attaching his or her inner moral sense to the act or quality being evaluated. In understanding this view of Hume, rawls even agrees with mackey's "projection analysis": "... We project them onto what is being judged.

From the perspective of moral evaluators, Hume thinks that there are four kinds of characters that often arouse the moral appreciation of onlookers: those that are useful to others; Character useful to oneself; Character that directly pleases others; Qualities that directly please oneself. Benevolence, or benevolence of character, is always useful to others, and is directly pleasant to others, so the bystander naturally endowed them with the attribute of moral goodness. However, a just act or a person who possesses the quality of justice is selfish from the perspective of the basis and motivation of the act or quality, but due to the public utility of justice, bystanders will still endow the behavior and character with moral value. This is Hume's whole argument for the origin of the morality of benevolence and justice. Through this theory of moral evaluation, Hume skillfully incorporated the two virtues of different origins into a harmonious moral system. At the same time, Hume called his moral system "the moral system of benevolence" because the basis or motive of the evaluator's moral evaluation is the natural "sympathy" in people's heart.

So Hume is against Hobbes, only against his self-interest in attributing the intrinsic motivation for people to do kind ACTS or moral evaluations; He is against hutchison, and only against the idea that the morality of his conduct must rest upon the benevolent motives of the agent. So Hume's concern with the morality of an action or a character is how to evaluate rather than how to behave, and he's concerned with the principle of evaluation rather than the principle of behavior.

Hume's moral theory is of great significance in the history of the school of moral emotionalism. Him through the limited "compassion" default in the human nature not only completely as the basis of criticizing the Hobbes virtue selfish theory, but also successfully overcome the hutchison love nature of choose and employ persons to explain the foundation of all virtue theory facing difficulties, to solve the problem of the origin of the virtue of justice, and on the basis of the difference between justice and love, the two into a complete "loving moral system".

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