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英国essay代写:A Discussion of the Response of Americans Before Challenges

2019-01-05 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Essay代写范文

本篇essay代写- A Discussion of the Response of Americans Before Challenges讨论了美国人面对挑战时的反应。19世纪初开始的美国工业革命,不仅彻底改变了美国社会的方方面面,而且也给美国人带来了一系列的政治、社会和文化上的挑战,这些挑战因种族、性别、阶级、地域等而异。随着美国东北地区工业化和经济的不断深入和扩张,还出现了土地和资源的挑战,这是通过西进运动和铁路建设来解决的。本篇essay代写51due代写平台整理,供大家参考阅读。

industrialization,美国的挑战,essay代写,代写,paper代写

The American industrial revolution, which began in the early 19th century, has not only revolutionized every aspect of American society, but also is accompanied by a series of political, social, and cultural challenges to Americans varying according to race, gender, class, region, ethnicity, urban or rural location, and so on. In this article, it is to have a discussion of how Americans responded to these various types of challenges.

The development of the industrial revolution in the United States brought about the inner conflict in the United States and the danger of division of the United States when the American Civil War occurred, bu the challenge was solved by the winning of the North in the American Civil War and reconstruction after the civil war. The North-South war was triggered by the economic disparities between the North and the South and the subsequent conflict on slavery, as a result of the contradiction between the two economies, namely the contradiction between the capitalist industrial and commercial economy in the north and the slavery plantation economy in the south. The industrial revolution appeared in the United Kingdom and then spread to the whole of the European continent. In the 19th century, it spread to North America. The industrial revolution made for the development of capitalist industry and commerce in the United States. In the development process, it requires more raw materials, human resources and markets. But in the southern United States there is a plantation economy based on slavery system, resulting that the United States can not form a unified market. After Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation in January 1863, the freedom of four million African Americans became a central issue of this war(text book, chapter 16, 418). This is effective in destabilizing the foundation of slaves as well. At the same time the South production of cotton, tobacco and other raw materials are mainly exported to the United Kingdom, which can not be the raw material to meet capitalist economic development needs of the North. With the plan made by President Lincoln and congressional Confederate members, all the southern states would be included into the union once the South had surrendered (text book, chapter 16, 418). This makes for a universal market of the United States. In addition to the rapid development of the US economy in the north, the United States won the western territory and began the establishment of some new states. When the state was established, the struggle for the existence or prohibition of slavery existed in the state. The northern bourgeoisie and the peasants advocated the prohibition of slavery in the state of New Jersey, calling for the state to be a free state. The southern slave owners tried to expand slavery to the west, advocating the slavery in the state. Also, the slave owners use their influence in the Congress for the advocating of the slavery , which aroused the indignation of the majority of the people. During the Civil War,in order to prevent Confederate’s expansion in the West, the Republican declared remaining western lands as federal territories and began the surveying of the West's subregions(text book, chapter 16, 449). Thus, the final victory of the Northern states in the American Civil War helps to end all backward economic relations of production in plantation and slavery system which were hindering capitalist production.

The second industrial revolution brought about a profound political challenge with the emergence of monopolistic organizations and political bribery, which was undermined by civil service reform. In the “The Tournament of Today” (1883), there is a word“Monopoly” on the armor over a locomotive. It shows that how monopoly has become one main controller of American economic life, and monopoly organizations were penetrating throughout the factories, mines, oil fields, railways and highway business. Just as Kellogg said, there is nothing in common for people of the time except oppression(Ackley, and Stanciu. , 76). Monopoly organizations in the US to establish and consolidate their own rule was relying on the advantages of technical equipment and control of the market, and wantonly annexation of small and medium enterprises. Americans began to worry unstable economy with the lack of government regulation of leading industrialists such as Carnegie, Rockefeller, Vanderbilt, Cooke, and Heinz (text book, chapter 18, 499). Those monopoly capital not only dominate the entire US national economy, but also manipulate the government to intervene in affairs of government. These large monopoly organizations, large corporate headquarters and major financial markets are concentrated in New York, Chicago and other big cities when the number of cities in the United States soared, and the scale of the city experienced expansion.

A special kind of profession ---professional lobbying was so developed by 1880 that both politicians and businessmen were all involved in it which gave bribes to politicians(text book, chapter 19, 513). Thus, those monopolistic organizations and businessmen can better control the politics. However, civil service reform began and Civil Service Act was passed in 1883 to control federal positions with civil service rules(text book, chapter 19, 514). Those measures alleviated to some degree control of monopolistic organizations and political bribery.

With the deepening of industrialization and economic expansion in the northeastern part of the US, there emerges the challenge of land and resources, which is solved by the westward movement and building of railways. In the early nineteenth century, the US economic center was in the northeastern part of New England where the economic base was better and completed the industrial revolution earlier. With the deepening of the industrial revolution, it can not meet the booming population and needs for lands. There is the need for western region to be gradually developed.  With the vast movement, a lot of continent was conquered( “The Winning of the West”)But there is geographic in the way of large scale development. Thus, railway magnate Leland Stanford and federal and local governments joined hands in the transcontinental railway which connects the east and west of the US( text book, Chapter 17, 448&451). And after the building of this railway, the urbanization of western region is experiencing a leap-style development, with a small number of small and medium-sized towns quickly developed into a connected and complete urban system. In addition, Midwest mineral resources is rich, with a lot of gold, silver, copper, iron, coal and oil and other resources, which have huge potential market. The railroads makes it easier for government, investors, speculators, and farmers to develop those natural resources( text book, Chapter 17, 448).With the advantages of being closer to raw material, this new formed city later become new center of the economy. It also leads to the forming of a series of industries such as metallurgy, machinery manufacturing, agricultural machinery, automobile, oil and food industries, and the wast has become the famous manufacturing area. The railroads with the telegraphs alongside them become the world's densest communication network, leading to a unified market across the nation (text book, Chapter 18, 474).This profound change not only promotes the rapid development of the US economy, but also makes the US economic centers link together . As a result, it has rapidly developed some new links for the communication of the west with the eastern region, so the developed new west areas promote the capitalist system of US to develop more quickly.

The industrial revolution has brought a series of negative influences and challenges to the natural environment of the United States and the living environment of the people at the bottom of the society, which was solved by a series of laws passed by the federal or state government. When the United States experienced and realized the industrial revolution, finally an industrial production systems was established based on coal, metallurgy and chemical industry. The United States changed into a leading manufacturing power(text book, Chapter 18, 474). With a lot of technological and economic revolution, it is to widely use the steam engine as the basic driving force. And the use of steam engines needs the burning of coal as fuel. So the rapid development of industrial revolution and science and technology brings great material achievements of mankind at the same time, because taking nature as the object of conquest ,and also brought serious negative impact. On the one hand, the development of manufacturing has brought about a global environmental pollution and ecological crisis; on the other hand, the development and utilization of natural resources is unlimited. After two decades following the Civil War, there was widespread deforestation in every part of the US(text book, Chapter 18, 496). Given more and more environmental problems including forest destruction and biodiversity reduction, atmospheric and acid rain pollution, land desertification, international waters and marine pollution, toxic chemical pollution and hazardous waste, people began to change. Former attitudes toward inexhaustible wildlife and resources in the 1870s become more and more aware of threat and extinction of whole species, and the federal government also adopt a coordinated policy (text book, Chapter 18, 496). In addition, with the establishment of heavy industry, and development of urbanization, there have been some crowded towns. “This association of poverty with progress is the great enigma of our times”(George). For the working class in the bottom of the community, there was hard work, and hard life, and living environment. Many of city dwellers in mid-nineteenth-century New York lived in a house called tenement, which was marked by darkness, conditions of bad ventilation, overcrowd, and place for disease growth(text book, Chapter 18, 492).  American working class as an important part of American industrialization, is also inevitably affected by the widening gap of industrial revolution. Thus, there were laws passed in the 1860s and 1870s aimed at improving living conditions(text book, Chapter 18, 492). Those legal efforts alleviates a series of negative influences and challenges to the natural environment of the United States and the living environment of the people.

To sum up, in the process of industrialization and economic expansion, there are the challenge of civil war, land and resources, the natural environment, monopolistic organizations and political bribery, but the US responds those political, social, and cultural challenges successfully.

Works cited

Ackley, K., C. Stanciu, and L. V. Metoxen. "Laura cornelius kellogg: Our democracy and the  American Indian and other works." Syracuse Univ Pr(2015).

Graetz,Friedrich. “The Tournament of Today – A Set-To Between Labor and Monopoly.” August 1, 1883.  Via Library of Congress (LC-DIG-ppmsca-28412).

George, Henry. Progress and Poverty: An Inquiry into the Cause of Industrial Depressions and of Increase of Want with Increase of Wealth: The Remedy (1879).

Textbook

“The Winning of the West”.Vol. 1. New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1889. Source: http://www.gutenberg.org/files/11941/11941-8.txt

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