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Essay代写:British individualism

2018-12-06 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Essay代写范文

本篇essay代写- British individualism讨论了英国的个体主义个体主义是英国国民性和文化传统的核心特征,表现在个体自我负责、政府和他人尽量不加干预及其影响下的经验主义哲学倾向和折中主义的处事态度等方面。个体主义文化传统在英国高等教育专业自由发展时期,表现为各大学自主设立专业。在个体主义文化背景下,英国高等教育专业设置具有专业分类方式非计划性且划分细致繁杂、专业关系上传统学科强盛、专业设置机制市场化的特点。本篇essay代写51due代写平台整理,供大家参考阅读。

British individualism,英国的个体主义,essay代写,代写,paper代写

Individualism is the core feature of the British national character and cultural tradition, which is manifested in the aspects of individual self-responsibility, empiricism philosophy tendency and eclecticism attitude of handling affairs under the influence of the government and others who try not to interfere. In the free development period of British higher education majors, the cultural tradition of individualism is reflected in the independent establishment of majors by universities. In the period of national coordination, the higher education institutions with university titles still maintain 100% autonomy despite the establishment of the national degree awarding committee to supervise. During a period of weakened coordination, the committee was dissolved and more schools were given the right to set up their own majors. Under the background of individualism culture, British higher education major setting has the characteristics of unplanned professional classification, detailed and complicated division, strong traditional disciplines in professional relations, and marketization of professional setting mechanism. The autonomy and flexibility of higher education institutions in the British higher education specialty setting are worth our country's reference, but at the same time we should consider our own cultural traditions and characteristics.

As an important branch of cultural system and cultural system, the formation of education system and education system in each country is subject to the traditional cultural paradigm of that country. As well as political and economic factors, cultural differences are also an important reason for education system, mechanism, mode and other differences between different countries. Even countries with similar political and economic factors have significant differences in education structure and education characteristics due to cultural differences. Chinese scholar gu mingyuan pointed out in his article "cultural research and comparison of education" that in order to understand and analyze a country's education, it is necessary to first study various factors, especially cultural factors, that affect the country's education system. In other words, only from the perspective of cultural research can we understand the essence of education of a country or a nation. British scholar Kevin cowen also believes that, on the side of positivist research paradigm, comparative education research should reiterate the very valuable research methods of cultural tradition.

As an important part of the higher education system, the British higher education specialty setting is closely related to its cultural tradition. This paper aims to analyze the historical track and personality characteristics of the development of higher education major setting in modern Britain from the perspective of cultural tradition, reveal the internal relationship between its cultural tradition and the characteristics of higher education major setting, and clarify the understanding of the British higher education major system.

Britain is a country with a long tradition and distinct national character. Its traditional culture and philosophical tendency centered on individualism permeate all aspects of social development, which makes the higher education and its professional Settings full of the personality core of national culture.

Individualism is the most important feature of British national character and cultural tradition. Holmes, a British comparative education scholar, demonstrated that individualism is the decisive factor influencing the development of British education. The term "individualism" here refers to the liberal tendency of the British nation to emphasize individual self-responsibility and to leave the government or others as little interference as possible. Individualism in the traditional concept of "individual" besides refers to the individual, also refers to the organizations and institutions of cooperation between individuals, the groups and institutions of the operation is also established on the basis of collective self control and self decision, rather than from the external influence, therefore, each of the institutions of higher education and higher education system is a type of "individual". From the British point of view, "every person or group has the right to explore a satisfactory way of life or doing things locally", and external intervention will undoubtedly have a negative impact on the development of things. "The unique attitude of the British towards the state, 'freedom' and individualism... It impedes the establishment of an effective interventionist state that should actively guide Britain's modernisation.

Under the influence of the cultural tradition of individualism, the British people have a rational way of thinking highly respected for experience, which leads to the philosophical tendency of empiricism. After the Renaissance, the new philosophy of Britain absorbed the factors that attached importance to experience from the scholasticism, abandoned its traditional way of thinking, and adapted to the needs of the emerging era. The representative figure of British empirical philosophy? John Locke believed that mind is like a piece of white board, all knowledge is based on experience. Locke's philosophy represents the British social freedom, actually the mainstream public opinion of fighting against autocracy, since access to truth from practice rather than theory, then, "the British people can't believe that national plans, because the country plan inevitably leads to a state dictatorship and bureaucratic control, they would rather believe that individuals or groups of spontaneous activity". Under the influence of empirical philosophy, the British people strongly believe that "an ounce of experience is worth a pound of theory" and attach importance to the deduction from individual experience to generality and universality.

Either individualism or under the influence of the traditional philosophy of empiricism, bring the social standard of are diverse, and possess the style of the mild, moderate, to tolerance, harmonize the eclectic attitude on contradiction become weights, integration of these multiple standards of society become compromise to solve the typical methods of all kinds of social problems. In fact, the basis of teamwork mentioned above also comes from discussion, arbitration, compromise and compromise.

British universities and colleges have formed a system of academic autonomy since the middle ages. In modern times, universities are still autonomous higher education institutions, although most of the funds for running schools come from the state. State and local authorities generally do not control universities. Because advanced learning requires more than general, complex, even mysterious knowledge, only scholars can deeply understand its complexity. According to this logic, teachers should control academic activities extensively. Because teachers know best what is learned, they are best qualified to decide which subjects to teach and how. In burton clark's view, since the mid - 1960 - s, although there was a strengthening of state power, but due to the government "shy" national goals and intermediate institutions of freedom, that the power of the British ministry of education compared with those of continental Europe style more implicative, hidden and not clear.

As the pioneer and core camp of a country's cultural development, higher education is closely related to the traditional value orientation. In individualism culture background, the university of British higher education professional setting is regarded as the "individual" inherent power, even after the second world war the state strengthens the cause of higher education to the attention of and attempt to convert it to a public undertaking, this power or preserved on different level, at the same time, the trajectory of the higher education professional located shows the characteristics of the "bottom-up".

Based on the British feudal system and the later constitutional monarchy, as long as British universities obtain royal charter and have the title of a university, they have the right to set up their own disciplines and specialties. The establishment of disciplines and specialties can only be approved by the professional committees of various universities. In the early days of university life in Britain, there were two ways to set up majors: first, some traditional and existing disciplines, such as theology, law and medicine; Second, some scholars are interested in certain knowledge, carry out research and obtain research results and status, and set up professorship positions with private funds to establish the status of new majors.

Since the 19th century, the great economic development brought by the industrial revolution and the rapid increase of the production industry in Britain have led to a new demand for talents. Arguments about the function of higher education emerged in academic circles from 1809 to 1830, which led to the increase in the number, scale, majors and flexible academic system of universities. In the second half of the 19th century, a large number of new universities appeared in northern England and wales. These colleges, which initially trained undergraduates, had no royal charter to award degrees. In 1958 the university of London opened an off-campus degree program to offer degree-granting services to these schools. Although these schools do not have the power to award degrees themselves, they still have autonomy in setting up their majors.

In general, although the establishment of the British higher education system and the evolution of its professional setting are the products of social and economic development, this evolution is a slow, gradual and bottom-up process of change, which is the self-repair and improvement of higher education itself in response to the needs of the situation under the action of external social forces. Especially before the World War II, it was difficult to find any trace of national macro-management in the British higher education professional setting system.

After World War II based on the guiding principles of the parsee report and the barlow report, the university grants committee gave priority to the social sciences related to scientific and technological development in the liberal arts, while the status of science and engineering began to rise. In 1963, the famous Robbins report was published, which formally established the double-system higher education system of university education and non-university education, which promoted the development of higher education in Britain. There are three types of universities in Britain: classical universities, city universities and new universities. Classical university takes Oxford University as an example, it sets dozens of colleges under the university, the college sets if related department, the department sets major, major has single course, also have span two or three subjects. The major setting of city university is divided according to division, each division sets major, major has mono-discipline and two kinds of interdisciplinary. The major setting method adopted by the new university is group learning, which is a new structure with stronger interdisciplinary characteristics. It sets up some closely related disciplines in a comprehensive way. On the other hand, it sets the same discipline in different subject groups. New universities have opened many new majors, especially interdisciplinary majors. As many technical institutes have entered the British higher education system, a national degree awarding committee was established in Britain in 1964 to be responsible for the examination and approval of professional Settings of higher education institutions other than traditional universities.

The British government tries to strengthen its influence on higher education through the dual system, and intervene and regulate its professional setting and quality management. However, due to the deep-rooted tradition of autonomy of higher education, the influence that the government can exert is only the vane of higher education, and universities with royal charter still have relatively complete autonomy. Although the major setting of the new university is included in the supervision system of the national academic degree awarding committee, the university still decides which majors to set according to its actual and development needs, and the higher education institution still maintains its autonomy. The dual system also continues to maintain the autonomy of traditional universities to some extent. Institutions such as the national degree-granting committee do not interfere with the autonomy of established universities such as Oxford and Cambridge in professional setting. Such universities themselves have a higher academic status than national organizations and do not need to be monitored by intermediary agencies. Therefore, what the dual system reflects is that under the strong tradition of individualism, Britain takes into account the national interests and adopts the principle and tendency of compromise, which not only holds the context of the development of The Times, but also conforms to the national cultural psychology.

In order to enhance the status of multi-disciplinary technical colleges, article 80 of the continuing education and higher education act of 1992 stipulates that "the minister of state may, by order, stipulate that the national degree-granting committee shall be dissolved". In 1993, the national degree-granting committee, which had played an indelible role in the development and diversification of the UK's higher education over a period of 30 years, was dissolved and its functions were transferred to the higher education quality assurance committee and the Open University. The process of abolishing this institution itself is the result of higher education striving for more autonomy, and also the manifestation of the fact that the tradition of individualism has regained its dominant position in the game of unified state control. On September 1, 2004, education skills department officially issued the "guidelines on the right to grant degrees and university titles in England and wales", which defined the procedures and methods for multi-subject technical colleges to apply for university titles and gain the right to set up their own specialties.

So far, it is not difficult to see that the cultural tradition of individualism has always been running through the development track of higher education major setting in Britain, and the constant emergence of new majors in the process of economic development also reflects this characteristic. After the 1960s, the national management mechanism was adopted for the professional setting of multi-subject technical colleges. However, higher education institutions with university titles have full autonomy, and after the dissolution of the national academic degree awarding committee, more and more colleges and universities have the right to set their own majors. This is a very interesting phenomenon. While strengthening the macro-control of higher education, the state has not weakened or even strengthened some autonomy of colleges and universities, while colleges and universities are seeking their own foothold and ways of self-development in the complex network constructed by traditional values, market operation and other factors.

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