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Essay代写:Britain's oil rule of law

2018-12-06 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Essay代写范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- Britain's oil rule of law,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了英国的石油法治体系。作为较早从事油气商业开发的发达国家,英国已经形成了涵盖海陆油气开发、独具特色、较为完整的石油法治体系。不断完善体制,加强宏观管理,促进油气工业不断发展是英国石油法律体系的一大特点。英国根据油气产业发展的实际需要,不断调整和修订法律,适时制定和出台新法规,为管理体制改革提供法律依据。另外,英国实施国有石油公司的民营化改革,实现了国有石油企业的民营股份制改革,显著促进了石油企业的发展,增强了其国际竞争力。

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Generally speaking, oil and gas law is a law made for all aspects of the oil and gas industry in the oil and gas field, involving exploration, drilling, transportation and commercial transactions, also known as oil and gas law. The legal framework of oil and gas exploration and development in the UK mainly consists of the government's oil policies, laws and regulations and contracts.

Petroleum law is a basic legal document regulating the exploration and exploitation of domestic oil and gas resources. A representative oil and gas law would address the following key issues:

The role of the government, the establishment of oil companies, the methods and application procedures for obtaining licenses/contracts, the phased requirements for operations, environmental requirements, financial requirements, dispute resolution, the role of the national courts, fines and penalties, etc.

Take the oil act of 1998 of the United Kingdom as an example. The act was enacted on June 11, 1998, merging the laws related to oil, offshore installation and submarine pipelines into one law. It is mainly composed of petroleum, Marine activities, submarine pipelines, decommissioning of Marine installation facilities, general miscellaneous items and appendices. Among them, the first part is oil, mainly related to the definition of oil, national ownership of oil, license and detailed provisions for exploration and exploitation of oil, payment of exploitation costs, subsidiary rights and other contents; The second part is Marine activities, mainly involving the application of criminal law, civil law, prosecution and other content; Seabed pipeline is the third part, mainly including the construction of the pipeline and use, authorization, mandatory pipeline maintenance, the use of the pipeline to obtain power, termination, authorized by the pipe after the termination of ownership or authorize follow-up questions, inspector, implementation, XingSu procedures, the civil liability of the illegal, the apply of this section, the commands and regulations the content such as; The fourth part is the decommissioning of Marine installation facilities, which consists of the preparation of the plan, the personnel who submit the plan, the approval of the plan, the consequences of not submitting the plan, the revision of the plan, the recovery of the approval, the obligation to implement the plan, the consequences of non-performance of the plan, financial resources, regulations, illegal penalties and other contents. The fifth part is general miscellaneous, mainly including shares in Northern Ireland and the isle of man with oil revenues, development loans, interpretation, provisional provisions and exceptions.

Oil regulations in most countries are usually formulated to deal with specific technical problems in the oil industry and are considered as supporting legal documents. Most countries only enact regulations related to oil and gas and do not promulgation laws, the purpose of which is to allow sufficient flexibility and adaptability of the legal system. Oil law generally contains a general provision that authorizes statutory bodies to formulate regulations in due course to keep in line with the policy objectives of the oil law, which allows greater flexibility in the legal system to change as circumstances change without having to go through a lengthy legislative process to amend the oil law. Some regulations may be very complex, specific and professional for the industry, while others may be very general and allow the industry the right to make industry rules. The success of regulations depends largely on the ability of regulators themselves. The main areas of supervision include: establishment of regulatory bodies, safety and environmental protection, technical aspects, financial considerations, application procedures and so on.

According to the bp law, oil operations can only commence in accordance with the forms and conditions stipulated in the oil law, regulations and oil contracts if a license or permit is issued by a legal body. Britain's oil law provides for greater flexibility in the rules governing exploration and production of oil, meaning that the state can direct oil operations through any international oil company, private company or any method it deems appropriate.

British oil law usually introduces the concept of standard contracts and what they contain. It authorizes legal bodies to provide standard contracts to potential applicants when negotiating exploration and production contracts. The common types of contracts in Britain include mining tax contract, product sharing contract, service contract, joint venture contract, license contract and so on.

The department for energy and climate change is the main regulator of oil and gas activity in the UK. The department aims to ensure that Britain has a safe, clean and affordable energy supply, promote international cooperation and monitor climate change. It has eight agencies under its jurisdiction, among which the oil and gas administration is responsible for the supervision of offshore and onshore oil and gas activities in the UK. Its main responsibilities include the issuance of oil and gas permits, oil and gas exploration and production, oil and gas fields and Wells, the supervision of oil and gas infrastructure, and the issuance of carbon capture and storage permits. The natural gas and power office is responsible for the supervision of monopoly companies operating natural gas and power networks, and has the right to determine the price control and implementation. Its responsibility is to protect the interests of consumers and help industrial enterprises improve the environment.

The ministry of economy and finance and the ministry of revenue and customs are responsible for the administration of taxation, such as petroleum income tax, value-added tax, fence ring corporate tax, etc.

The main responsibility of the Marine safety administration is to monitor the health, safety and environmental protection of oil and gas activities.

Deepening reform, improving the system, strengthening macro-management and promoting the continuous development of the oil and gas industry are major features of the legal system of bp. This is highlighted in the following aspects: firstly, according to the actual needs of the development of the oil and gas industry, we should constantly adjust and revise laws, timely formulate and introduce new laws and regulations to provide legal basis for the reform of the management system; Secondly, we should constantly promote market-oriented reform, open up the market and introduce competition to promote the rapid development of domestic oil and gas exploration and development. Thirdly, the privatization reform of the state-owned oil companies has realized the reform of the private shareholding system of the state-owned oil companies in the UK, which has significantly promoted the development of oil companies and enhanced their international competitiveness.

The UK has earlier established a management system of oil and gas mineral rights with block bidding as the core. The management of oil and gas mineral rights mainly includes the following contents: first, the division of oil and gas blocks, according to relevant laws, the exploration areas on land and sea continental shelf are divided into several blocks, and bidding is carried out in batches; The second is to formulate standardized bidding procedures and bid standards, define the criteria and procedures for bid evaluation, and determine the type and terms of the contract; The third is to establish an effective block return system, in accordance with the standards of capital investment, technology, process, environmental protection and other standards and the term of mining rights, part or all of the oil and gas block mining rights will be returned; Fourth, a system of taxation policies for oil and gas resources has been established, with signature fee, rent, royalty and tax exemption as the main ones.

The British government attaches great importance to the supervision of oil and gas development and utilization, pays attention to the standardization of exploration and development activities, and emphasizes the supervision of oil and gas Wells, so as to achieve scientific, reasonable and efficient development of oil and gas resources. This concentrated performance is as follows: first, supervise the bidding and tendering activities of oil and gas mining rights, ensure their openness, transparency and fairness, and supervise the implementation of various contracts and the collection of taxes and fees; The second is to supervise the specific oil and gas exploration and development and production activities, strictly review the exploration and development technical programs, supervise the investment of funds, the application of technology and technology, and strengthen the supervision of oil and gas Wells, including the production of oil and gas Wells, the impact of various drilling on the environment, and the reasonable disposal of abandoned facilities. The establishment of appropriate regulatory bodies responsible for the overall supervision of oil and gas exploration and development.

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