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Essay代写:Britain's social assistance system

2018-12-05 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Essay代写范文

本篇essay代写- Britain's social assistance system讨论了英国的社会救助体系。社会救助是国家与社会采取的以非供款制与无偿救助的方式,向由贫困人口与社会弱势群体提供款物和扶助的一种制度性生活保障政策。英国是世界上最早建立社会救助制度的国家,其济贫传统和公共救助制度由来已久,是社会救助制度中的典范。本篇essay代写51due代写平台整理,供大家参考阅读。

social assistance system,英国社会救助体系,essay代写,代写,paper代写

Social assistance is an institutional life guarantee policy adopted by the state and society to provide money, goods and assistance to the disadvantaged groups composed of the poor and the unfortunate by means of non-contribution system and free assistance. Britain is the first country in the world to establish a social relief system. Its tradition of poverty relief and public relief system have a long history, and it has formed the "British model" in the social relief system. The British social relief system has a good reference value for the construction of our country's relief system.

The British social relief system was originated from the charity of Christianity and the mutual aid of guilds in the middle ages. In the mid-16th century, Henry viii issued successively the relief articles act and the poverty act, which set the precedent for the government to take charge of relief measures for the poor. In 1601, queen Elizabeth promulgated the poor relief act, which stipulated that local governments should be responsible for the relief work of the poor, and collect weekly taxes from the local government to relieve the poor. This way of helping the poor pioneered modern social relief. In 1834, queen Victoria promulgated the new poor law, which severely restricted the relief to the poor. And improve the state relief supervision.

Since the late 19th century, people's views on the causes of poverty have changed greatly, from individual responsibility to the theory of structural factors. In the 1930s, in the process of coping with the economic crisis, the government transformed the original poverty relief system into a new "public relief" system, and established a new public relief service system, which was gradually improved in the following years. By 1936, the poverty relief system in Britain had been basically sound.

After World War II, Britain entered a new stage of building a welfare state. At the end of 1942, the report on social security and related services was issued, which defined the basic framework of the post-war British welfare state. On this basis, Britain has enacted a series of social security bills. Among them, the national relief law issued in 1948 replaced the poverty relief law system with a new national relief system. Since the 1970s, due to various problems caused by the expansion of social welfare, the wave of welfare reform has been surging around the world. Britain has also begun to reform its social welfare system.

Social assistance in Britain is mainly aimed at individuals and families whose living standards are lower than the statutory minimum standards, and mainly includes two types: one is those who are unable to work. Including the young, the elderly, the chronically ill and the disabled in poor families; The other category refers to people who may temporarily be in danger in adverse circumstances. These include temporary unemployed persons, persons who have temporarily lost their ability or job opportunities as a result of illness or natural disaster.

The social assistance system in Britain focuses on low-income poor residents, so its coverage is largely determined by the poverty line. Britain's poverty line is set by parliament each year and is theoretically determined on a "level of demand". The determination of "demand level" basically considers 3 respects factor, the basic treatment that reflects normal need namely, special need and the housing allowance that reflects residential need.

The main programs of social assistance in Britain include low-income families' assistance, elderly people's assistance, disability assistance, unemployment assistance, disease assistance and housing subsidies. The assistance for low-income families is to those whose income is lower than the official poverty line. Old-age assistance is mainly to 80 years old, do not qualify for pension or only a small amount of pension subsidies for the elderly; Housing assistance refers to the "housing assistance" provided by the government for residents whose actual income is still lower than the poverty line after enjoying the standard housing welfare. The housing relief treatment includes the reduction and exemption of all real estate taxes, the payment of rent, the payment of interest on loans for house purchase, the payment of all water fees, and the provision of fixed amount of repair fees and insurance premiums to the poor who live in their own houses every year.

In addition to helping the poor directly, Britain also has many welfare programs, including disability allowance, war pension and family allowance.

War pensions are divided into "disabled pension" and "widows and orphans pension" two kinds, the distribution scope includes the disabled soldiers in the world war, war in the merchant ships or civil defense team wounded disabled, wounded civilians, and war victims of widows, orphans and so on. Family allowance includes minor allowance, one-time allowance for giving birth to women and allowance for single parent. Disability allowance includes nanny allowance, activity allowance and heavy disability allowance.

The British social relief fund is basically responsible by the state, and the system of combining social relief application and investigation is implemented. Any family in need of assistance shall submit an application to a social security institution, and the "supplementary allowance committee" shall send professionals to investigate the income and living conditions of the applicant's community and work unit, mainly involving the number of the applicant's family, the population without labor force, the working population and the income and expenditure of the applicant.

Such a large social assistance system as Britain's is rare in the world, and its beneficiaries account for about 9% of the total population. Even so, it is still criticized by many people that many poor people do not get the assistance they deserve.

The social assistance practice in Britain has a long history and a high level, and there are many places for us to learn from.

First, we should attach importance to the development of a social assistance system that covers a wide range of areas, provides various forms of assistance and effectively alleviates poverty. Social assistance has always been an important institutional arrangement to deal with poverty and unemployment. The key to its success lies in whether it can effectively play its role in poverty alleviation. Although Britain's social assistance system has been criticized by many people, it is complete, covers a wide range of areas and has high standards. It has truly guaranteed the basic life of members of the society and played a role as a "social safety net".

At present, the object of social assistance in China is only limited to poor families. The standard of social assistance is not high. Although there is some assistance in education, medical treatment and housing, the effect is not obvious because there is no corresponding supporting measures. Therefore, we should learn from the UK and truly play the role of social assistance "social safety net".

Second, emphasize the fiscal responsibility of the government. The development history of social assistance in Britain tells us that social assistance is the most basic and important social system design. No matter what direction the wave of international social welfare reform takes, it is beyond doubt that the government bears the responsibility of helping the poor, ensuring the basic livelihood of citizens and alleviating poverty. Financial support is the direct manifestation of such government responsibility. In other words, it is the incumbent responsibility of the government that social relief funds should be borne by the national finance.

At present, China still has a large number of poor people, the task of social assistance is still very heavy, its work needs a lot of financial support. However, it is an obvious problem that China's fiscal expenditure does not provide enough support for social relief. Although the annual fiscal budget has increased the amount of social relief funds, there is a large gap between the proportion of social relief funds and that of other countries. On this issue, we should draw lessons from the experience of the British government. The state and government finances should shoulder the most important responsibility and increase financial support for social relief, which is the proper meaning of a responsible government.

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