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英国essay代写:The authoritarian regime of east Asia

2018-11-09 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Essay代写范文

本篇essay代写- The authoritarian regime of east Asia讨论了东亚的权威政体。东亚的威权政治加经济发展模式形成东亚威权主义国家的共同特征,在东亚国家内部威权的合法性逐渐削弱,经济发展和市民社会壮大的内在民主化动力和外在国际民主化趋势的影响下,东亚威权政体向现代民主政治转型。在这个过程中,政府应该推动经济与政治的适当分离,推动市民社会健康发展,政治社会化以及政治文化的健康发展。本篇essay代写51due代写平台整理,供大家参考阅读。

authoritarian regime,东亚权威政体,essay代写,代写,paper代写

The model of "authoritarian politics plus economic development" in east Asia forms the common feature of east Asian authoritarian countries. Under the influence of the internal democratic impetus of economic development and the growth of civil society and the external trend of international democratization, the authoritarian regime in east Asia changes to modern democratic politics. In this process, the government should promote the proper separation of economy and politics, promote the healthy development of civil society, political socialization and political culture.

Chinese and foreign scholars have discussed the concept of "authoritarianism" quite a lot. Perlmutter, an American scholar, calls it "modern authoritarianism" and o 'donnell, an Argentine academic, calls it "bureaucratic authoritarianism". Some Chinese scholars call it "elite authoritarianism", some call it "transitional authoritarianism", and some call it "new authoritarianism". Authoritarianism is, according to huntington, "little political debate and competition, but government control over the economy of the rest of society is limited". According to professor luo rongqu, a famous Chinese scholar, the so-called authoritarian regime refers to the military regimes or highly repressive regimes that emerged in some developing countries and regions after the World War II. According to modern political science, authoritarianism refers to the authority that the rulers impose their will on the members of the society regardless of the will of the members of the society. It is the authority above the effective legal rules and the legal power of people, including absolutism and bureaucratic authoritarianism. "Authoritarian" is the sublation of the traditional absolutism, so in the current China has a larger market, one of the reasons is the temptation of east road, especially authoritarians understanding of east road, and even distortion, give a person a kind of feeling, that east Asia road is a practical and feasible for China's modernization, that is the case, it remains to be further research. Here's a simple analysis of east Asian authoritarian regimes:

The authoritarian regime in east Asia not only has the characteristics of the old traditional totalitarian political system, such as high concentration of power, one-party politics, military intervention, but also carries out some policies of a series of new regimes that meet the requirements of modernization, such as the form of parliamentary democracy, expert governance, value the rule of law, and fight against corruption. Therefore, east Asian authoritarian regimes, different from the feudal tradition of authoritarian totalitarianism and fascist totalitarianism, also different from the western parliamentary democracy, but have their own characteristics of independence. This regime is actually a form of transitional politics, a model of authoritarianism plus development. It is imposed on politics by a centralized administrative body with a strong pragmatic orientation and development orientation. Therefore, some people call it a developmental autocracy. In the process of modernization and development of east Asia, these countries and regions, on the one hand, absorb some reasonable factors of western industrial civilization and free economy, develop national economy with all their strength, and constantly improve the absorbing capacity and redistribution capacity of the country. On the other hand, they absorbed the strength of the country from their cultural traditions and started the process of late industrialization on the basis of retaining the original political system and cultural structure. This mode of social development, which neither abandons its own traditional system nor rejects modern industrial civilization, means the mutual combination of authoritarian politics and market economy. To establish new political authority in the political imitation of modern civilization in order to deal with various forms of external interference; In terms of economy, the limited free economy is adopted to ensure that the national capital is larger than the private capital, and the market system is constructed, and the environment of mass participation and social welfare is gradually stepped into.

For a long time after the war, the "authoritarian plus development" model reflected the desire of east Asian countries to change their backwardness, and the economic achievements driven by the centralized political structure were remarkable. On the other hand, the government's excessive involvement in the economic development process has led to some bad phenomena, such as collusion between officials and businessmen, corruption and bribery, and "golden politics". Although rapid economic growth can be achieved through authoritarian politics and government intervention to control the market and accelerate economic development, there are always risks of excessive intervention and deregulation of some aspects. Once the government interferes excessively, it is very easy to slip into the mistake of autocracy, especially under the influence of the modern democratic form, this kind of excessive intervention can easily make people feel disgusted.

These countries and regions, whether military or semi-military or civilian, are basically forced stable regimes. It is this type of coercive stability that keeps east Asia's politics relatively stable. Having long suffered from poverty, the people of east Asia have a strong desire for development. Between freedom and development, they would rather sacrifice some of their political freedoms and democratic rights, while clearly preferring development. Only development can change backwardness and only stability can promote development. So in the choice of the political system they naturally chose authoritarian politics. Authoritarian leaders reinforce authoritarian regimes in order to consolidate power. However, political stability does not mean the elimination of social contradictions and antagonisms. Political stability can be defined as political stability as long as the confrontation and contradictions do not break through the scope of political order and legal system, or the government takes decisive measures to turn the crisis into safety and enable economic, political and social life to proceed in an orderly manner. This coercive stability, "of a certain duration, unreliability, and even great danger," was necessary at the time.

Most countries in east Asia do not have a strong middle class like the west, and the power of the people is very limited. Therefore, only the government can play the role of organizer and promoter in the political and economic life of the whole country. The role of government is quite powerful. It is no exaggeration to say that the middle class in the eastern countries is a premature child born of inborn deficiencies. They cannot function independently or even have no ability to depend on certain powers or forces. It's hard to survive in business if they don't have a background behind them. The combination of the Oriental development orientation and the authoritarian politics was further strengthened.

Under the influence of the trend of world democratization, east Asian countries have entered the process of democratization in different degrees.

Since the mid-1980s, many authoritarian countries, such as the Philippines, South Korea, Thailand and Singapore, and Taiwan have started the process of political democratization to different degrees. Pluralistic democratic constitutionalism system begins to establish, military government changes to civilian government; Multi-party politics developed rapidly; The role of the legislature has been strengthened; The President voluntarily relinquishes power or is directly elected by the voters; The political participation of the people and interest groups has become an important criterion for the newly industrialized countries in east Asia to achieve political modernization. From the perspective of the current east Asian transformation process, its characteristics are as follows: first, the transformation is basically realized in a peaceful and non-violent way, that is, it is realized step by step according to the normal selection channels; The second is the combination of bottom-up and top-down, which first comes from the promotion of civil and social forces, and then the leaders change from passivity to initiative and adopt change measures to ease contradictions, thus forming a feature of "gradual change and nature".

The main reasons for the transition of authoritarianism in east Asia are as follows. The legitimacy of a regime is the key to its survival and authority. The people were able to tolerate and even demand centralization of government in the hope that such a strong government would develop the economy and meet their material and cultural needs. For this reason, the people would rather give up part of their democratic rights for the time being. Once this goal is achieved, however, the people will rightly demand the return of their temporarily transferred democratic rights, and the political demands will grow as the public's education and awareness levels rise. Therefore, the government has no reason to monopolize and deprive them of this right forever. In this case, authoritarian regimes in east Asia will pay a high price, even at the risk of being overthrown by their citizens, unless they turn to democracy to find a new basis for legitimacy.

After decades of rapid economic growth, the level of modernization in east Asia has been greatly improved. Civil society was basically formed, and the main role of political democratization was exercised. This provides a powerful internal impetus for the transition to democratic politics, which is highlighted by the growth and growth of the middle class. The growth of the middle class is eroding the social foundations of authoritarian politics, and political democratization has thus gained a powerful boost. The political consciousness and thinking concept of the middle class are closely related to the way of life, which is reflected in the consciousness of democracy, freedom, equality and law. In short, the transformation of authoritarian politics in east Asia is inherently irreversible.

The development of authoritarian politics is bound to be influenced and restricted by the whole international environment, which cannot be separated from the whole international environment. The general trend of the post-war international political and economic development is that the wave of democratization, modernization and economic globalization has hit all the countries in the world. The concept of democracy is deeply rooted in the hearts of the people. Under the influence of western established democracies and the development of emerging international democratic forces, according to huntington's "snowball effect" theory, east Asian authoritarian regimes are gradually moving towards democracy. The transition from authoritarian states and regions to democratic regimes in east Asia is uneven, gradual and preliminary. The transition to democracy is still in its infancy, the democratization of western capitalism has taken hundreds of years, and the transition to democracy of east Asia's authoritarian regimes is just beginning, and there is still a long way to go. It is necessary to make timely and reasonable adjustments to the political system during the transformation process so that it can gradually achieve self-development and perfection. There are both opportunities and challenges in the transformation process. To prevent the subversion of the western idea of "peaceful evolution", to prevent the influence of the return of democracy and the return of power autocracy, and to cope with the abrupt change of the international situation due to occasional uncertainties, the authoritarian countries in east Asia need to explore and maintain their own unique development path through difficulties and twists and turns.

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