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essay代写-American publishing

2018-11-08 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Essay代写范文

本篇essay代写- American publishing讨论了美国的出版业。美国的出版业同其他产业一样,在整体经营过程中,市场营销起着举足轻重的作用。市场营销部门在运作中往往是主导和中坚力量,市场营销部主管需参加出版公司的所有业务会议,对产品的装帧、定价和印数等发表主导性意见。在美国出版人的心目中,读者是永恒的上帝。在活动的安排上,图书一旦上市,读者应该在全国各个书店都能买到这本书。同时,在读者购书的过程中,还要及时收集读者的需求信息,以便为下一步营销策划做准备。本篇essay代写51due代写平台整理,供大家参考阅读。

American publishing,美国出版业,essay代写,代写,paper代写

America has only 249m people, but its publishing industry is unusually strong. The United States now issues more than 87,000 publisher prefixes, according to bowker publishing, an authoritative ISBN publication. In 1998, there were more than 9,000 publishing houses registered in the United States. Among them, 40 large publishing houses with annual sales of more than 30 million dollars were the largest, and the top 20 largest publishing houses accounted for 75% of the total sales revenue and 50% of the profit of the publishing industry in the United States. The vast majority of the rest are small publishers that publish one to three books a year. Apart from a few government-managed enterprises, most of them are private enterprises or joint-stock enterprises. Their publishing activities are free from government interference. The government only regulates and regulates the publishing industry through legal and economic means. In the early 1990s, the United States produced an average of 24 billion books per year, with about 100 books per person. It can be said that Americans spent the highest amount of money on books and periodicals in the world. In 1997 America produced 68,000 new books and 2.28 billion copies. In 1998, 56,000 new books were published in the United States, which remained stable and healthy, but covered all disciplines of human culture. China is undoubtedly the most populous country in the world with over 1.3 billion people and huge market potential. By 2002, however, there were only 568 publishing houses, 8,187 periodicals and 2,038 newspapers. In 2001, a total of 914 thousand new editions of books were published and 63 thousand reprinted, with a total print run of 6.31 billion copies. In 2002, about 170,000 copies were published, including about 100,000 new editions and 70,000 reprints, with a total print run of 6.87 billion copies. The journal published 2,846 million copies. In 2002, there were 200 publishing houses with total assets of 50 million yuan or more. 50 companies with sales revenue of 100 to 500 million yuan; There are 60 out of 50 to 100 million; 90 out of 10 to 50 million. Although there is a large gap in the scale between China's publishing institutions, it is far from the huge contrast and industry monopoly of American publishing industry. At present, China does not have a rival to time warner publishing group, generally small. Although the growth rate of China's book market is far higher than that of western countries, the per capita consumption level of books and periodicals in China is far lower than that of developed countries such as the United States. Of course, as a spiritual product, the sales of books are often subject to the national economic environment and the level of national quality. With the development of China's economic construction and the improvement of national quality, the publishing market is bound to show greater market space.

America's publishing houses are the giants of the international publishing industry. Second, the rapid development of international book import and export industry; The third is the multinational operation of publishing companies.

Storehouses are solid and know their manners. The economic prosperity of a country will inevitably bring about cultural development. The United States is undoubtedly the world's only superpower, and the people's cultural level has been in a higher level of development, thus bringing about strong domestic purchasing power.

The import and export of cultural products has been a big business in the United States. According to the global times on August 6, 1999, the United States controls 75% of the world's TV program production and production. In many third world countries, 60% to 80% of the TV programs come from the United States, while in the United States, foreign programs account for only 1% to 2%. America produces 6% to 7% of the world's films, but more than 50% of the time. The import and export business of American books and periodicals is also very outstanding. At present, there are 85 books import and export companies and 8 export agencies. According to statistics released by the U.S. department of commerce, U.S. book exports reached $1.89 billion in 1997, up 6.8% from the previous year. According to an economic report released by the international intellectual property alliance, copyright trade has grown twice as fast as the U.S. economy since 1977. In 2000, us copyright output reached $457.2bn, accounting for 4.9 per cent of us gross domestic product. U.S. copyright exports far outpace those of other traditional industries and employ 4.3 million people. In contrast, China's copyright trade is almost a negligible number of foreign exports. According to the figures published by world book magazine in 1993, the total annual exports of books in China are only 0.04% of the annual trade volume of world books. In 1999, according to statistics from the general administration of press and publication, China's total exports of books and periodicals were $15.2747 million. $16.33 million in 2000; in 2001, exports were just $18 million and imports were $80 million. In 2002, China exported 899,157 kinds of books, newspapers and periodicals, with a total value of us $174,058 million, a decrease of 1.32%. Not only are these Numbers not comparable to those in the developed world, they are far behind even South Korea and Singapore, as well as Taiwan and Hong Kong.

Most publishing groups in the United States are cross-media and cross-regional media groups focusing on book management. Among various media groups, publishing groups often run several media businesses at the same time. In addition, due to the development of economic globalization, transnational development has also become an important direction for the development of publishing enterprises. Borders, an American bookstore chain, had 30,000 employees in 2001. It has 869 traditional stores and 349 superstores in America, Europe, Australia and Asia. In 2000, the company's total revenue was $3.3 billion, of which about two-thirds was operating outside the United States at $2,292 million. The reader's digest in the United States has been published in 19 of 48 editions worldwide, with nearly 100 million monthly readers. The company also makes books, audiovisual products and TV shows in 13 languages and sells them in 24 countries.

Compared with the cross-regional and cross-media operation of foreign publishing groups, China's publishing groups have been formed through administrative and policy means in recent years in response to the entry of Europe and America to the Chinese market after the accession to the WTO, and most of them are the administrative combination dominated by provinces and regions. In a sense, this is not the inevitable result of the development of market economy. Of course, this combination is also determined by China's specific historical period and its own development characteristics. For the publishing industry, China pays more attention to its guiding role of public opinion and often regards it as the base of building spiritual civilization. Therefore, the contradiction between social benefit and economic benefit, between marketization and public opinion guidance, has become a key issue in China's publishing industry reform. The group combination of regional division and provincial unit formed under the state administration intervention does not actually solve the problem of regional division in the publishing market. Moreover, China's publishing group is actually the association between publishing houses, and the book publishing operation often becomes the main business of the group. Up to now, China's publishing groups have not formed a mature cross-media, cross-regional business structure.

The publishing industry in the United States, like other industries, plays an important role in the overall operation process. The Marketing Department is often the dominant and dominant force in its operations. The head of the Marketing Department is required to attend all business meetings of the publishing company and give dominant opinions on the binding, pricing and printing of products. In the marketing operation of books, American marketing personnel usually divide the marketing activities into two stages according to different consumers. First, before the launch of books, the marketing activities were mainly aimed at secondary consumers such as libraries and distributors. Second, after the publication of books, marketing activities are mainly aimed at the direct purchasers of books - readers. The cost of marketing American books accounts for about 10% of sales. Of these, 75% of marketing expenses are spent in the second phase, considering that the focus of the marketing campaign is the audience. In the minds of American publishers, the reader is the eternal god. In the event, once the book is on the market, readers should be able to buy it in bookstores across the country. At the same time, in the process of buying books, readers should collect information on their needs in time to prepare for the next marketing plan.

Compared with American publishing industry, China's publishing industry has many unreasonable factors from organization structure to distribution concept. At present, most of China's publishing houses lack professional marketing departments. Although some marketing strategies are also adopted in their operations, they are far from systematic and comprehensive. Although the book has its particularity, but it is ultimately a commodity, only sold can reflect its value. China's publishing industry this kind of backward management concept, obviously with China's publishing market has the characteristics of monopolistic competition. This is mainly reflected in that China's publishing market is divided according to departments, regions and majors by administrative means, and publishing agencies in provinces, cities and autonomous regions are basically a model. As far as publishing houses are concerned, they are all state-owned public institutions. Although they are operated as enterprises, they have a single organizational structure, backward market management philosophy, little difference in the products and services they provide, and their business scale is basically in the same level. In addition, China's publishing industry has always been classified as a category of public opinion, therefore, the state has imposed strict restrictions on it. From a large perspective, China's publishing market is still in a relatively fragmented state, far from forming a unified, open, competitive and orderly publishing market. Facing the need of China's entry into WTO and international exchange and development, the development of China's publishing industry still has a long way to go.

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