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英国essay代写:A potential crisis in Japan's food market

2018-09-27 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Essay代写范文

本篇essay代写- A potential crisis in Japan's food market讨论了日本粮食市场存在的潜在危机。日本是一个资源比较贫乏的国家,尤其是其有限的耕地面积,必然限定其粮食总产量。而其多年来所实施的海外屯田政策,潜在的风险非常大。其60%的粮食要依靠进口,但是日本人却极其缺乏粮食危机意识。本篇essay代写51due代写平台整理,供大家从参考阅读。

Japan's food market,日本粮食市场,essay代写,代写,paper代写

The people regard food as the sky, and food is the necessity of human reproduction, and the fundamental guarantee of all human social activities. Under the common effect of the global climate crisis and the lack of investment in agriculture, the world has witnessed a series of high and shortage of food prices. In the face of the world food crisis, Japan, as a country with extremely low self-sufficiency rate of food, should go where? How can Japan reflect on its potential crisis to cope with world food shortages? This article will be from domestic grain cost is high, and waste is serious; Low self-sufficiency of grain and excessive dependence on imports; The disadvantages of implementing the policy of "foreign land accumulation"; The impact of natural disasters such as earthquakes and volcanoes is analyzed in four aspects.

Japan has long been known as a "resource-poor" country, and its limited arable land, in particular, necessarily limits its total grain output. But its policy of "resettlement" over the years, which looks "seamless", is potentially dangerous. It is a "miracle" that a "resource-poor" country like Japan rose rapidly after the war to become the world's "second largest economy" after the United States. Whether this "miracle" can be seen as an "afterthought" to development is another matter. Glory belongs to history, and tomorrow is still an unknown." "Growth is never sustainable. This essay tries to discuss the potential crisis of Japan's grain problem from the following aspects in order to give some valuable references.

Japan has more than 2000 years "rice culture", so far, there are still many legends about the custom, of meters, celebration and programs, such as rice has the extremely high status in the eyes of the Japanese, the Japanese as "inter", this is why I would rather spend a few times the price of buying domestic rice important cultural reasons. The politics of high government subsidies for domestic rice and high trade barriers to foreign rice is that one of the main sources of LDP votes is rural. So it is inevitable that Japanese rice is heavily politicised. Japan has pursued domestic rice protection since the beginning of the last century, paying about y550bn in fiscal subsidies in 2002 alone. At the same time, because of high tariffs, importers are not profitable. In addition, Japanese people have less confidence in imported rice after the "tainted rice" incident, so it is difficult for imported rice to enter Japanese kitchens. An important prerequisite for implementing the decision is that rice in Japan can meet the needs of 95% of the population. After Japan's new food law was enacted in 1995, it weakened the government's control over rice, which was only partly or indirectly administered. However, the law did not weaken the government's macro-control role, and 22% of the rice is still directly in government hands. However, due to the long-term violation of market economy, the international competitiveness of Japanese rice has become very fragile and the huge subsidies for a long time have made the Japanese government neither want to give up control of rice, but have to change the existing rice protection policy. On 15 December 1993, the Uruguay round of gatt began to cut tariffs on agricultural imports. Visible trade barriers seem to have been brought under control, yet some developed countries have quietly erected an invisible "green barrier". On May 29, 2006, Japan began to implement the "positive list system", which strictly enforced the quality of agricultural products and food. Although the "positive list system" poses a severe test for countries that export agricultural products and food to Japan, it controls imports to some extent. At the same time, however, the system also imposes strict quality requirements on Japanese exporters, which is good for human health. To break the "green barrier", Japan must rely on science and technology to strictly demand the quality of its own food and agricultural products, and open the door of Japan's trade with real "strength".

Although Japan is a resource-poor country and even imports 60 percent of its food, the Japanese are extremely short of food crisis awareness. According to the circular society white essay released by the ministry of environment in 2005, food factories and restaurants produce 9.65 million tons of food waste every year, of which half can be recycled into fertilizer, feed and biomass. Japanese households produce 11.89 million tonnes of food waste each year. Most of them are incinerated as burnable waste, and only 2% can be recycled. Most of the burnt food is imported from abroad at high cost. What's more, Japan keeps imported rice in storage for the sake of domestic rice and feeds it to poultry when it goes bad. The food waste produced by food factories and restaurants and the food waste produced by families every year add up to 21.54 million tons. Such a shocking waste has to cause heartache! Why bother stockpiling overseas when it's so wasteful? Since resources are limited, we should cherish the grain in our hands. Moreover, according to Japanese media, Japan's grain reserves can only meet the country's needs for one to two months. Such small stockpiles of grain are a cause for concern. As the yamato nation, we have to admire its ability to maintain its good national quality in the magnitude 9 earthquake in March 2011. Then, as a member of human homeland, should we also shoulder our responsibility for the sustainable development of the human family?

According to the latest statistics in 2009, Japan's total area is 377,835 square kilometers, among which the land area is 374,744 square kilometers, the water area is 3,091 square kilometers, the cultivated land area is 52,884.72 square kilometers, and the rice area accounts for 40% of the cultivated land area of the country. The physiological density of population is as high as 3,054 people/square kilometers, ranking second only to Egypt in the world. The total population is 1227.38 million, ranking the 10th in the world, accounting for 1.85 percent of the world's population. According to the statistics of 2008, Japan's grain output is 8.5 million tons. It is clear that Japan relies on imports for most of its food. Compared with China, Japan's population density is 2.44 times that of China, ranking 30th in the world. Yet China feeds 22% of the world's population with 7% of the world's land. The main reason is that about 71% of Japan's land area is mountainous and hilly, so even if the forest coverage is high, it is not suitable for farming. Japan imports about 60 percent of its food, including 18.3 percent from China and 22.2 percent from the United States, according to the economist. But, to be precise, Japan is the "world's largest food importer", after rice. According to statistics, Japan's annual output of rice reached about 7.72 million tons in 2010, with 95% used to meet domestic consumption and only 700,000 tons imported, which is basically self-sufficient. In 2010, the us department of agriculture estimated that Japan imported 16.1 million tons of corn, ranking first in the world and almost 100% dependent on imports. At the same time, China imports 3.4 million tons of soybeans, the fourth largest in the world.

At present, though Japan is the world's third largest economy, its food self-sufficiency is pitifully low. Japan's self-sufficiency rate was reported to be about 39 percent in 2010, down 1 percent from a year earlier. In other words, Japan cannot produce enough food for about 60 percent of its population. While the self-sufficiency rate of the United States and France both exceeded 120 percent, that of Germany reached 99 percent, and that of China remained around 95 percent. Economic overreliance inevitably leads to political compromise. What happens when there is no political compromise? Even the worst results will involve the safety of sovereignty. As in the last century, the use of war for overseas plunder? That doesn't seem to be the best way to solve problems in the 21st century. To be politically independent, you have to solve your own economic problems. Japan's fiscal position since the beginning of the last century has been grim.

As shown in figure 1, Japan's debt-to-gdp ratio has been climbing year by year since 1991, reaching over 200% in 2010. Meanwhile, Japan's national debt reached a record high of 943.8096 trillion yen at the end of June 2011, according to data released by the ministry of finance on August 10, 2010. On the basis of Japan's total population of 127.38 million, the average national debt is about 7.38 million yen. These debts, at 185% of GDP, are the highest in the developed world. Will Japan be able to pay for its huge food imports? Even if it can barely pay, it is a big burden on Japan's finances. To make Japan's finances

According to statistics released by the United Nations population fund, by the end of October 2011, the total number of people on earth will pass the 7 billion mark. Meanwhile, according to the estimate of the us department of commerce, the global population will pass 10 billion sooner or later. According to Oxford University research, the earth's population should be limited to about 3 billion. In other words, the earth's population is now more than twice as large as it should be, and the food crisis is well under way. Fao estimates that about 900 million people worldwide are currently hungry or malnourished. According to the United Nations, global food production could fall by as much as 25 percent by 2050, driven by climate change, land degradation and loss, and water scarcity. Such a scenario would have consequences if international aid and agricultural inputs were not increased. Faced with a severe world food crisis, countries with poor land resources, such as Japan, South Korea and Saudi Arabia, have to change their minds and turn to overseas markets. In fact, this practice is not a product of The Times, but has a history of more than 100 years. Japan has 12m hectares of foreign land, three times the size of its own farmland, and its "foreign land" policy has two main methods: one is to pool with locals, with little or no wholly owned farm. Foreign countries provided land, and the Japanese provided agricultural machinery and infrastructure. Another way is to sign a purchase contract directly with local farmers. Because the returns from direct farming are low, it chooses not to grow directly on overseas farms. The downside of both approaches is that in the event of a severe crisis in world food prices, land prices will have to be inflated, and the right to rent land to the landowners will be firmly in the hands of the landowners. Even if the world food crisis can be managed effectively, who can guarantee that the food exporting countries will always export to Japan in the face of changing international politics? Second, if the world's food supply and the world's population are out of proportion, countries will be left to their own devices. Even if they have money, where will Japan import it? And, once the world food crisis occurs, the world food prices are bound to be high, import high prices, how long can Japan support?" Blood transfusions are a palliative, while hematopoiesis is a permanent cure. It is better to depend on yourself than on others. On the one hand, depending on the scientific and technological strength, increase the yield per acre field; Japan, on the other hand, has the most land reclamation in the world, with an area of 1,600 square kilometers. However, to increase the total amount of grain, it is necessary to continue reclaiming large amounts of land from the sea and increase the food self-sufficiency rate. At the same time, we should continue to implement the policy of "setting up foreign land" as a supplement and expand the scale of "setting up foreign land" in due course. Of course, no amount of food needs to be saved, and excessive waste can only overwhelm Japan.

Japan, located east of Eurasia and west of the Pacific Ocean, is made up of 4 arc-shaped islands, namely, the islands of Japan, the kuril islands, the ryukyu islands and the igua-ogasawara islands. There are 6,852 islands, covering an area of about 378,000 square kilometers. Among them, the four major islands of Hokkaido, kyushu, shikoku and honshu account for 99.37% of the land area. Therefore, it has become a well-deserved "country of thousand islands". Because of its location at the junction of the Eurasian plate, Philippine sea plate, Pacific plate and north American plate, and the circum Pacific orogenic belt, volcanic belt and seismic belt, Japan is the country with the largest number of earthquakes in the world, with more than 1000 earthquakes every year. About 10% of the world's earthquakes occur in and around its territory. According to statistics, more than 20 percent of the world's earthquakes of magnitude 6 or above occur in Japan. About a tenth of the world's volcanoes are also in Japan. Among them, the most famous active volcano is Mount Fuji at an altitude of 3,776 meters. The special geographical environment inevitably makes Japan a country with multiple natural disasters.

On March 11, 2011, Japan was hit by the largest earthquake with a magnitude of 9 on the Richter scale in 1,200 years. The strong earthquake triggered a tsunami and nuclear leakage that killed more than 15,000 people and caused direct economic losses of about 16.9 trillion yen, 1.8 times the amount lost in the 1995 hanshin earthquake. The cost of rebuilding in five years is estimated at 12 trillion yen, according to Japanese officials. On that day, the global stock market all fluttered green, the CBOT market fell sharply. The sudden natural disasters not only brought unpredictable losses to Japan's finances, but also greatly damaged Japan's "vigour". At the same time, domestic grain production fell sharply and Japan became more dependent on food imports. Agriculture still cannot get rid of "depend on the sky to eat" the destiny." The extra spending adds another burden to Japan's finances. At the same time, this puts forward higher requirements for Japanese agricultural science and technology.

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