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Essay代写:Technological hegemony

2018-09-07 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Essay代写范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- Technological hegemony,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了科技霸权。随着科技的发展,如今科技优势已是霸权国的力量之基,标准霸权则是霸权可持续性的保障。经济全球化与互联网经济的发展,使得国际标准竞争成为国际政治、经贸博弈的焦点,国际标准的制定权决定了相关产业的主导权,最终内化为一国的竞争优势,并作为对他国设置国际贸易壁垒的载体。而发达国家纷纷将科技先发优势转化为标准优势,将标准战略作为其综合优势的核心战略。

Technological hegemony,科技霸权,英国代写,英国论文代写,essay代写

Scientific and technological superiority is the base of the hegemony, while the standard hegemony is the guarantee of the hegemony sustainability. With the development of economic globalization and Internet economy, international standard competition becomes the focus of international political, economic and trade game. The right to establish international standards determines the dominant power of related industries, which is ultimately internalized into the competitive advantage of one country and serves as the carrier for setting international trade barriers to other countries. Developed countries have turned the advantage of scientific and technological initiative into standard advantage and taken standard strategy as the core strategy of their comprehensive advantage. The right to set international standards has become the core game between the existing and emerging powers. This paper analyzes the real threat of western hegemony to emerging countries, explains the basic situation of asymmetric game of international standards, and puts forward the realistic challenge and solution path of China's internationalization of scientific and technological standards. The core motivation for China to win the game of international standards in the era of industrial revolution 4.0 must be rooted in the deepening reform at the institutional level and the aspiration of national culture for self-improvement.

The process of globalization has been asymmetric, driven by individual countries or groups of countries, which ensnare most of the weak. It is not so much that the world is flat as that "the world is being flattened by some force" which is the standard of technology. With the development of economic globalization and Internet economy, international standard competition becomes the focus of international political, economic and trade game. The right to establish international standards determines the dominant power of related industries, which is ultimately internalized into the competitive advantage of one country and serves as the carrier for setting international trade barriers to other countries. Developed countries have turned the advantage of scientific and technological initiative into standard advantage and taken standard strategy as the core strategy of their comprehensive advantage. China started its industrialization late, and its standard system is not perfect. Although it has the advantage of demand for many high-tech products, it is at a disadvantage in the competition of international standards. The right to set international standards has become the core game between the existing and emerging powers. Since scientific and technological progress can promote power transfer in international political structure, how can established powers defend the hegemony of scientific and technological standards? Is there an opportunity for the latecomers to catch up, and where is the node of this opportunity?

The power gathering in the era of globalization has gone beyond the enclosure colonization in the era of great voyages and increasingly relied on the global expansion of scientific and technological advantages. The major powers in the international community usually obtain the broad recognition of their status through the dissemination of foreign ideologies, the provision of regional or global public goods, and the establishment of rules and regulations leading to international norms. However, the external features of the legitimacy of these great powers do not exist in isolation, but are integrated through an invisible chain between each other. This is the globalization of the standard system based on scientific and technological advantages. The rise of any great power inevitably follows the growth path of scientific and technological innovation -- internationalization of domestic standards -- providing regional and international public products -- dominating international public opinion, so as to build the legitimacy foundation of compound great power and even hegemony.

Since the reform and opening up, China has adopted an export-oriented economic model and encouraged products made in China to go around the world. China has also transformed itself from a subversive and revolutionary international economic system into a participant and builder. What followed, however, was a protectionist backlash against the developed world. Developed by setting the strict technical standards to ban imports of Chinese goods, especially the use of the WTO "agreement on technical barriers to trade regulation related industrial manufactured goods technical regulations and rating standard, set environmental protection barriers for Chinese exports, such as information technology barriers, through multiple marking commodity anti-dumping investigation, survey and so on production process, the" China threat "goods, bring the" made in China "credibility crisis, greatly weakened the international competitiveness of Chinese products.

On the face of it, China's exports of labor-intensive and resource-intensive products do have the characteristics of low added value, and some of the cheap goods do not meet the technical indicators of the importing countries. The problem, however, is that less than 1 per cent of Chinese exports do not qualify, and China's growing share of the overseas market indicates international recognition of Chinese manufactured goods. In addition to the well-known motives of trade protection, are there any deeper political intentions behind the rising technological standards of western countries such as the United States and Europe in their exports to China?

The answer is to maintain the industrial and technological hegemony of developed countries. The hegemony of industrial science and technology refers to that the existing powerful countries make use of the first-mover advantage of science and technology to monopolize the standard system of various industries in the global industrial chain and prevent the latecomer countries from building the standard system independently, so as to maintain their own technology monopoly advantages in various industries. 3. In the era of knowledge economy, scientific and technological progress promotes the accelerated evolution of global industrial pattern. Competition among countries is increasingly concentrated on the extent to which knowledge-intensive industries dominate the national economy. Countries with scientific and technological advantages will be located at the upstream of the international division of labor system, holding the leading role in scientific and technological innovation, and through the internationalization of technical standards, squeezing the space of scientific and technological research and development in developing countries, and weakening the advantages of natural and human resources in developing countries, so as to maintain the intergenerational gap of scientific and technological development between rich and poor countries. The international power distribution pattern based on the advantage of scientific and technological first mover is more favorable to developed countries. In a sense, the essence of human industrial civilization is the country discrimination based on the hegemony of science and technology, and the logical end of science and technology advantage is bound to lead to the centralization of international politics.

It is a long road from the production of industrial material to the production of industrial civilization to the hegemony of international political discourse. When scientific and technological advantages are used by specific countries as tools to seek for international political power, and science and technology as functional attributes of intelligent elements of productivity are alienated and become subservient to international politics. The combination of scientific and technological advantages and national politics leads to the highly exclusive scientific and technological nationalism. In the evolution of human industrial civilization, the main historical axis of the rise and fall of great powers always centers on the gains and losses of scientific and technological hegemony. On the whole, the scientific and technological hegemony of big countries mainly affects the global political and economic system from three aspects: the global industrial chain, international trade and international politics.

In the field of the international industrial chain, the hegemony of science and technology is reflected in the use of the right to set international scientific and technological standards to safeguard the competitive interests of the country in the industrial chain. In industrialized today, each industry is based on several industry technical standards. The standardization process of the industrial chain has improved the compatibility and connectivity of transnational production, not only expanding the market demand scale of the industrial chain, but also reducing the risk of technology transfer and transaction cost. First-mover countries, taking advantage of their own technological advantages, have been competing for the right to set scientific and technological standards in order to control the global industrial chain and suppress competitors. The impact of such standard hegemony on latecomers is mainly shown in two aspects. The property right effect requires latecomers to pay patent tax and use their intellectual property for compensation. The binding effect is that when a technology standard is adopted by a late-developing country, it must be applied to all patents covered by that standard. Late-development country of the technology standard hegemony means: to enter is controlled by both the power of the industrial chain, we must accept the unequal distribution of intellectual property rights relationship, not only the default both powers in the privileged position in the standard system, more is locked in the international industry chain downstream position, as both power subservient to the hegemony of science and technology.

In the field of international trade, the hegemony of science and technology is to prevent the transfer of high technology to the developing countries. This is reflected in three aspects: one is to control the export of high-tech equipment to later-developing countries, which hinders their researchers' access to high-tech products and production chains. Second, we will strictly examine the safety of science and technology of domestic enterprises that invest in later-developing countries, and those that invest in later-developing countries, and strictly guard against the flow of their high technologies to later-developing countries. Third, using scientific and technological advantages to force latecomers to implement high-intensity intellectual property protection policies, carry out intellectual property examination and litigation on latecomer national high-tech enterprises, and squeeze the space for r&d of latecomer national independent science and technology. Through domestic legislation, promulgation of industrial regulations, establishment of industrial censorship and other means, the existing big powers, on the one hand, use their scientific and technological advantages to occupy the market of developing countries and squeeze the market share of industrial competitors. On the other hand, strict technical and technological standard barriers are set up to hinder the commodity export of later-developing countries, so as to protect domestic industrial interests and domestic market. This approach not only maintains the monopoly advantage of big countries in science and technology, but also restricts the flow of high-tech value-added products to latecomers. It also serves the dual purpose of expanding the international market and closing the domestic market.

In the field of international politics, the hegemony of science and technology is the legitimacy of the hegemon's identity. Global institutional norms are the legal basis of hegemonic states. The domestic industry standards of hegemons have extensive international effects and are the dominant force in regulating international actors. Hegemons make use of the normative force of the standard system and take factors such as technology, specification and quality as the restrictive conditions for the production and circulation rules of products, thus influencing all aspects of international politics. For example, in the field of international security, hegemons take advantage of the dominance of advanced science and technology to formulate rules and regulations in the field of arms control and arms verification. In the field of international organizations, hegemony countries by the international organization for standardization and international electrotechnical commission, the international telecommunication union and other international standards, international standards, domestic technology standard can be converted to gain legitimacy standard hegemony, this system can not only forced to promote their own standards, prompt and internalization, obey the standard system, most countries can more greatly weakened the coma technology hegemony countries oppose hegemony countries international appeal. At the level of global governance, scientific and technological superiority is the core ability of hegemons to provide international public goods. On the one hand, the international transfer of science and technology itself is an important part of international public goods, the late-development country due to many limiting factors, such as history, geography its spontaneity hard to conduct a comprehensive scientific and technological innovation, have to rely on both the power of science and technology assistance to promote the economic development, and the asymmetric dependencies of science and technology, once formed, it is hard to change it. It is because the technology transfer of hegemons meets the economic development needs of the international community that hegemons are able to internationalize through the standard system and turn their scientific and technological advantages into strategic benefits.

To sum up, the foundation of the hegemony of science and technology is the advantage of science and technology, the formation path is the internationalization of the standard system of science and technology, and the expression form is the continuous dependence of the international community on the public products of science and technology of the hegemonic power. The ultimate goal is to maintain the legitimacy of the hegemonic power status. It can be seen from this that the transformation from scientific superiority to scientific hegemony is a process of "scientific and technological politicization", while the establishment of scientific and technological hegemony to hegemonic status is reflected in the process of hegemonic obtaining "demand-type legitimacy".

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