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英国essay代写:The natural sciences

2018-09-05 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Essay代写范文

本篇essay代写- The natural sciences讨论了自然科学。自然科学无论作为人类的探索过程或社会活动领域,都是一个系统或一个有机整体。自然科学作为一个系统或整体,不仅内部各要素之间相互影响和作用,而且与外部环境之间也相互匹配和相互协调一致,从而构成了整个社会系统。这也说明科学创新或科学的发展实际上是一项系统工程,其核心要素是文化基因或哲学思想。本篇essay代写51due代写平台整理,供大家从参考阅读。

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Natural science is a system or an organic whole, whether it is a sub-system of human understanding, exploration process, culture, or a field of social activities. As a system or a whole, natural science not only interrelates, influences and interacts with internal factors, but also matches, interacts and harmonizes with external environment, thus constituting the whole social system. This fully shows that scientific innovation or scientific development is actually a system engineering, and the core element of this system engineering is cultural gene or philosophy.

Natural science, as human's understanding of the nature, is essentially a system or organic whole, that is, it is composed of different parts which are interconnected, interacting and interacting with each other. It is precisely because science is a system or organic whole that scientific innovation, development or progress is a complex system engineering. This means that if we want to truly improve our capacity for scientific and technological innovation, we must make all-round changes in all the ideological fields and links involving science in order to create a soil that can adapt to the survival and development of science.

Natural science is human's understanding of the nature, and its achievements mainly include four aspects: first, scientific discovery or empirical facts; second, concepts; third, hypotheses or theories; fourth, laws, principles and predictions. These four components are closely related and together constitute the "result system" of natural science.

The essence of natural science lies in that "it is a kind of speculation or interpretation of the causes of natural phenomena, and the formulas, laws, predictions etc. derived on the premise of such interpretation or speculation can be rigorously tested by human experience". Since the nature of natural science is the explanation of the causes of natural phenomena, it is necessary to find natural phenomena in the first place.

As far as philosophy or epistemology is concerned, rational knowledge has three forms: concept, judgment and reasoning. Lenin once said, "the fruits of natural science are concepts." The concept is the cognition of the commonness and essential attribute of various things or phenomena, which is usually obtained by induction. It is the preliminary rational cognition of human beings to natural phenomena. On the basis of clear concepts, people make a judgment of whether something or a phenomenon in nature is metal, inert gas, chemical elements, oxidation reaction, simple harmonic vibration, protein, nucleic acid, etc. To form a scientific hypothesis or theory by reasoning on the basis of judgment.

But are the scientific hypotheses that have been derived or proposed true? It has to be tested. There are only two ways to test objective rational knowledge or scientific knowledge: logical analysis and empirical comparison. The former examines scientific knowledge or the interpretation system of natural phenomena, and whether there are logical contradictions or paradoxes inside, that is, any scientific knowledge must be self-consistent; The latter examines whether scientific knowledge is "correct" as a system for revealing or explaining the causes behind natural phenomena.

But the natural phenomenon is behind see scratching, so in general, people cannot know in science by direct inspection or scientific hypotheses, but first of all, on the basis of scientific hypothesis of strict logic reasoning, related law, formula is deduced, principle and prediction, etc., and then use observation and experience obtained from the experiment facts or scientific facts for their inspection. If the relevant laws, formulas, principles and predictions are proved by empirical facts, people will consider this scientific hypothesis to be correct and it will be accepted as a scientific theory. The opposite is wrong. Since the relevant laws, formulas, principles and predictions are based on scientific hypothesis and deduced through logical reasoning, they are consistent with each other and equivalent.

It is not hard to see that the four components of the natural science system, as the result of human understanding of the nature, are closely related and one cannot be missing. Scientific concept is a kind of scientific fact or natural phenomenon common or essential attribute, and is the most important and basic form of scientific knowledge. Scientific hypothesis is undoubtedly the core of scientific knowledge and the final form of scientific knowledge. As a conclusion inferred on the basis of scientific hypothesis, the laws, formulas, principles and predictions of science are not only the guidance for people's social practice, technological invention and technological creation, but also the key for scientific knowledge to be tested.

Natural science research is the most creative social activity of human beings. This exploration process is a process in which scientists constantly discover, propose and solve problems. In a sense, the history of natural science is a history of discovering and solving problems. As a process of exploring and revealing the mysteries of nature, scientific research activities can be roughly divided into five stages. Stage 1 is the collection of perceptual materials or empirical facts about the problem; The third stage is to analyze the collected empirical facts. The fourth stage is to put forward relevant scientific hypothesis on the basis of collating empirical facts, and to make unified interpretation of relevant empirical facts, that is, to solve the problems originally proposed; The fifth stage is the rigorous examination or verification of scientific hypothesis or explanation. The five stages of the scientific research process are closely related, interlinked, and interact with each other, forming the procedural system of natural science.

Popper, the philosopher of science, insisted that scientific research begins with problems, because problems can lead to research. In order to solve the problem, scientists should collect as much perceptual materials or empirical facts as possible. It is well known that observation and experimentation are often used to obtain empirical facts about the problem. Experimental method has become an important means of modern scientific research because it is essentially scientific workers' use of artificial methods to "create" natural phenomena. Because the view of nature is like the guidance of the scientific workers according to the certain theory has a purpose, consciously "creation", so it can provide scientific workers system, precise, typical, pure, orientation, professional experience fact, enabling them to acquire scientific research institute needs to quantity, high quality of perceptual materials. In fact, most of the perceptual materials or empirical facts required by scientific research today are obtained through experimental methods.

Science is a cultural process. Therefore, "as a cultural phenomenon, science, like other cultural phenomena, also shows a strong national character". The same is true in practice. The science we study today is the product of western cultural genes, with very strong and obvious western cultural characteristics, just as Chinese medicine is the product of Chinese cultural genes, with very strong and obvious Chinese cultural characteristics. The Chinese people learn, introduce and transplant western science with purpose, consciousness and scale only from the westernization movement.

Since science is a part of culture, as a sub-system of culture, its parts are also interrelated, influencing and restricting each other, and it is bound to fit with its corresponding cultural genes, and match and coordinate with each other.

On the whole, science as a cultural phenomenon, as a sub-system of culture, is mainly composed of three parts. Second, the way of thinking or philosophical thinking determines how people study or by what method. Thirdly, belief and belief determine people's confidence and how to view their research results. The reason why there are significant differences or essential differences between different scientific forms is precisely because natural science, as a cultural subsystem, has significant differences in its basic cultural elements, such as people's values, way of thinking, belief and belief.

First, values determine whether people research, explore the mysteries of nature, or what questions they study. Taking western science as an example, it mainly includes two aspects: first, the ancient greeks thought that "the pursuit of knowledge is human nature", so it is the most valuable and meaningful thing to explore the mystery and know the nature of nature in order to get rid of ignorance and satisfy human curiosity. As Aristotle put it, "they seek philosophy only to get out of ignorance. It is clear that there is no practical reason for them to pursue the study of knowledge." That is to say, the ancient greeks believed that the exploration of the natural world itself was the purpose and the most worthwhile thing for human beings to do. The second is that the ancient greeks believed that only the understanding of the reasons behind things can be considered as the recognition of things, only the appearance of things, only perceptual knowledge. The principle of cause and effect was first put forward by lyukib

Nothing happens for nothing. Everything happens for a reason and necessity. Aristotle put it more explicitly: "wisdom is knowledge of certain principles and causes." Because "having understood the principle and the cause, everything else becomes clear". It is under the guidance of this value orientation. From the ancient Greek natural philosophy to the birth and development of modern science after the Renaissance, western science always takes the exploration of the causes behind natural phenomena as the main direction of research, and thus has become the essence and the most important feature of western science.

Secondly, the way of thinking determines how people study the nature or through what methods and approaches. As a cultural subsystem, the thinking mode of western science is mainly reflected in its metaphysical foundation and methodology. Kant pointed out clearly that "all natural sciences in their original sense need a pure part on which the unquestioned certainty which reason seeks in them can be established". In Kant's own view, this pure part of the foundation is solely philosophy as metaphysics. Without these philosophical ideas as the foundation of scientific metaphysics, science would be a castle in the air.

Methodology is more obvious and important to western science. It is conceivable that science cannot proceed without proper methods of observation, experiment, mathematics, analysis, classification, induction, deduction and comparison. From the perspective of the history of science, it is these scientific methods that made western modern science independent from the natural philosophy system and developed rapidly. It goes without saying that scientific methodology itself is a part of philosophy, just as marxism believes that there is a methodology for any world view. At the same time, methodology can best reflect the thinking method of a nation's people or a cultural mode.

Thirdly, belief and belief determine people's confidence in scientific research. The belief and belief premise of western science is mainly based on two kinds: one is religious, the other is secular. Christianity believed that the whole universe was created by god and therefore ordered, perfect, simple, harmonious and regular. The Christian study of nature is itself a tribute to god and a great man to know him. That is to say, "one must study god's creation in order to better understand god himself." In fact, the vast majority of scientists are both researchers and christians, as were Newton, Copernicus, Mendel and Einstein. Einstein even made it clear: "the belief that the world is essentially orderly and recognizable is the foundation of all scientific work. This belief is based on religious sentiment.

Western confidence in the secular aspects of the search for the mysteries of nature comes from the Pythagorean school of thought. The pythagoreans believed that "number" is the origin of all things, because "number" is simple, orderly and regular, so the whole universe is also simple, orderly and regular. This simplicity, orderliness and regularity can be accurately expressed and reflected by "mathematics". This view of the Pythagorean school directly influenced the development of modern science. The great scientists like Copernicus, Kepler, maxwell and Einstein were almost all the pious pythagoreans.

Anyhow, science as a cultural phenomenon, as a subsystem of culture. Almost all of its internal elements and the cultural gene, the people's way of thinking, values, beliefs, beliefs close contact, mutual match, coordinate with each other, thus constitute an organic whole, science brings out the distinctive cultural features.

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