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essay代写-French art criticism

2018-06-15 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Essay代写范文

本篇essay代写- French art criticism讨论了法国的艺术批评。18世纪法国艺术批评的产生其实并不是一个孤立现象,而是当时整个法国社会批评文化形态在艺术领域中的折射和表现。而艺术批评在起源之时也并不是限定在纯粹审美的范围内,批评家们对艺术的关心和兴趣更多地从属于他们进行思想批判和社会批评的激情和抱负。总的来说,艺术批评是世纪法国启蒙时代氛围下产生的自觉行为,是在不同立场之间的争论中确立下来的。本篇essay代写51due代写平台整理,供大家从参考阅读。

French art criticism,法国艺术批评,essay代写,代写,paper代写

The emergence of the 18th-century French art criticism actually contains the content of the three, one is that the generation of artistic criticism is not an isolated phenomenon, but the whole social criticism of France at that time culture form reflected in the field of art and performance; Second, art criticism at the time of the origin is not limited to, within the scope of the pure aesthetic critics concern and interest in art more from their ideological criticism and social criticism of passion and ambition; Third, art criticism is a conscious act in the atmosphere of the enlightenment era of France in the century, and it is also established in the debates and even struggles between different positions. Therefore, the overall appearance, constitutive factors and distinct characteristics of French cultural forms in the 18th century have become a very important prerequisite and background for studying the origin of art criticism.

"1710-1720 years in the ten years in France marks an important turning point in the cultural history, during this period, the streets of poor speech become more common, Peng strike pamphlet published prosperity, the first group of liberal intellectuals being active, debate, and the convergence trend, to expand the category of ideological criticism involves played a decisive role. Gradually everything became thinkable, discussable, even monarchical authority and religious institutions. From 1713 to 1728, it can be said that the cultural environment of France changed profoundly, and the so-called critical century began. The century French art criticism that we are going to discuss comes into being and is integrated into the whole cultural form of criticism in the age of enlightenment. This chapter will be to understand the spirit of enlightenment as the starting point, from the 18th century literati, the monarchy, the public domain, as well as specific analysis, publishing, education and reading from the contents of this period and clarify the century French culture life is how to change, how change the face of the later. In this way, it can provide a context for the emergence of French art criticism in the 18th century. And secondly, when we learned that the spirit of those principles, historical conditions and practical problems with complex relations, we will be able to understand more deeply the criticism in the field of art of all kinds of problems, don't again to simplify the century art salon criticism as a kind of isolated, sudden, a single aesthetic practice, just also won't be surprised or confused in the criticism of art.

Kant says the enlightening spirit of the two core content: reason and courage, want to rely on the courage to fight against the power of the rationality, rationality is not, to fight for learning and using the rational freedom, clear everything with courage, to reason; Reason, in turn, gives people the courage to control everything, to make continuous progress, and to liberate themselves from theology and tyranny. Rationality and freedom, the philosophy and critique is the core elements of enlightenment spirit, these categories are different expression of the same kind of situation, its purpose portrays the enlightenment thoughts from different angles to the basic characteristic of the spirit. After a comprehensive understanding of the enlightenment spirit, we will be able to realize that art criticism is the application of the enlightenment spirit in the field of art.

The enlightenment rationality of the 18th century inherited the achievements of the century, but abandoned the metaphysical nature of the 17th century and turned to experience. And is in the enlightenment of this empirical turn to the corresponding people to the specific social reality in all areas of concern and participation, on the basis of this, it would not have been cultivating the enthusiasm of the public consciousness and criticism, art criticism to the 18th century.

In the 17th century the victory of Descartes' philosophy has establish rational as the position, but in including Descartes, mahler Bronx, spinoza and leibniz philosopher of interpretation system, the rational kingdom is an eternal truth, is the presence of a static concept rationality is prior to all experience, reveals the nature of all things absolutely talent concept combined. And by the 18th century, Descartes and others with Locke's empiricism and rationalism analysis, hypothesis of Newton's way of thinking, the combination of producing a kind of with no difference, the 17th century but differentia of rationality. There is no difference, as in the seventeenth century, in the belief that reason should and can lead people to a unity. And rational differentia in 18th century the focus of thought from prior to experience, the principle of shift phenomenon, general to the specific: rational is no longer the abstract thinking of metaphysics, but to experience the phenomenon as a starting point; It is no longer pure analysis confined to Numbers and quantities, but is generally applied to specific fields such as psychology, state and social theory, religion: and aesthetics. Compared to the 17th century, 18th century put the reason in a relatively simple sense, the role of see it as a dynamic concept: rationality is not a priori, but can be obtained from the analysis of the experience, can also be obtained from learned; Rationality is a kind of ability, a kind of power, it's main function is to decompose and construction, people in the religious enlightenment, handed down from the conventionality of tradition and the society under the guidance of the upper authority believe everything, then according to the principle of rationality to build a new building. This is also a feature of the spirit of enlightenment, controlled by the criticism to the age of enlightenment not critical for criticism, but the criticism into creating activities, used to update the necessary tools for all fields, opened a new era of modern one by one. Modernity embodies the spirit of reason and enlightenment. It believes in the progress and development of social history, the continuous improvement and improvement of human nature and morality, and that human beings will move from oppression to liberation. Indeed, the empirical rationality of the enlightenment inspired the transformation of science into technology, and the subsequent industrial revolution and the rapid technological progress can be traced back here. In the age of enlightenment, people's subjectivity was established through critical rationality, which made religion's aura dim and secular culture rise. The political ideals of the enlightenment were deeply rooted in people's minds, and a new democracy was tried after the French revolution. Art criticism in the enlightenment era has created a new situation in which art and the public and the two influence each other.

The formation of enlightenment culture and critical groups in France in the 18th century, if not further, also experienced at least 200 years of preparation and preparation in the 16th and 17th centuries. Under the limited influence of the 16th century polish language of Copernicus: the theory of the movement of celestial bodies. After discovering the new world of new information and, under the impetus of the protestant reformation is relatively more widely from the study of religion extremely interest and knowledge discovery in another world, has produced a generation of humanist, their sincere and full of passion, with sincerity and critical spirit and innovative ideas into bold debate in the field of knowledge, ai, amdo ray, rabelais belong to this column. Promulgated in 1598 the edict of nantes, before and after in a more relaxed atmosphere, formed a request through their own reading, thinking, mental and social activities to improve its own spiritual faith class. They include the clergy, and they are also secular. They joined groups of their own, where they discussed and communicated in a serious way, either in the Catholic camp or in support of protestantism, and there was a fierce debate about faith. In this process, a tradition of criticism and open debate began to take shape, and the first ideological trend of the free-thinking came into being in this atmosphere. From giordano Bruno to lurgi, Leo, they adhere to the concept of the habit and thought of freedom, the aristocracy and influential writers, but the trend in 1625 after a brutal crackdown soon disappeared. These pioneering fighters against church bondage are courageous, but they have opened up small Spaces.

This critical spirit continued to spread in the salons of the century. When scholars talk about science, math, philosophy, travel, and so on in the ladies' salons, a different kind of public space is opening up. Here, after 1625 years of the second generation of free thought, on the one hand more than the previous generation, and under some form of measures of protection on the other hand, they blame point-blank, religious and doctrines, such as Pierre ng Santiago DE others pointed to the political and social comments directly, such as Charlie Israel, it is important that all these comments found the rational foundation. One of the most outstanding representative of Silas nords bei heat, he will be vivid and the plot and the form of the moral and religious conservative outspoken criticism of the fuses in together, reflect the rational thinking and criticism. However, this generation of literati, including the tuishi party, Sharon scholars, elegant women and liberal thinkers, have not been able to reach all fields with their resistance to the autocratic cultural model and the effectiveness they can produce. They also lacked cohesion and often fought their own battles. Therefore, when Louis xiv mobilized the national power to control everything, the spirit of criticism was strongly suppressed.

During the reign of Louis xiv from 1661 to 1715, an absolute monarchy was finally established. In the first few decades of his reign, as the young sun king: administrative management, court manners impressive, religious institutions is stable, the heyday of literature and art, everything is in order and the framework of etiquette to heel, inspired the rest of Europe to cast envious eyes. But after a century s, the brilliancy of the autocratic monarchy rule into recession: persecution of protestants, war crisis, members of the royal family died, discontent with the various social classes and so on. Under the calm of the prevailing conditions, other forces were waiting for the opportunity, and then Philip of Orleans burst out. That is to say, within the classicism and the monarchy, the age of enlightenment is brewing.

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