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英国essay代写-Introduction of TOEFL writing

2018-02-08 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Essay代写范文

本篇essay代写- Introduction of TOEFL writing讨论了托福考试的写作。托福写作部分是托福网考的最后一节,它的得分是由两名教师评定的,满分为30分。考生也会得到一个总结,说明他在写作部分的表现,大多数英语国家使用该分数来衡量申请人的英语写作能力。要想获得高分,写作的结构必须条理清晰,引言、结论和段落之间的联系。托福考试,有一点非常值得注意,那就是写作中词汇量越高,分数越高。因此,在写作中质量比数量更重要。本篇essay代写51due代写平台整理,供大家从参考阅读。

TOEFL writing,托福写作,essay代写,代写,paper代写

It is common sense that the TOEFL (test of English as a foreign language) writing section is the last section on the TOEFL iBT and it is scored on a scale of 30 by two instructors. The candidate will be given a summary of how he or she performed in each writing part and the score if used by most English-speaking countries to gauge the applicant’s ability to write in English (TOEFL iBT official website home page, 2017).

The first part is the integrated writing section. This section consists of reading an academic passage for 3 minutes, then listening to a lecture related to the passage. Finally, the candidate is given 20 minutes to write a summary about the reading and the listening part. The second part is called the independent writing part, within 30 minutes, the candidate has to produce an essay on a given topic, usually argumentative, of at least 300 words (TOEFL iBT official website “About the test” page, 2017).

To receive high scores, the structure of the writing sample must be well-organized, with an introduction, a conclusion, and supporting paragraphs in between. While the introduction gives a general background and thesis of the paper, the conclusion restates the main ideas of the paper. For the supporting paragraphs, there needs to be a sub-thesis sentences for each paragraph and sufficient details to back-up your thesis. The language and vocabulary is also valued for this material because the examiners are looking for essays without grammatical errors and with a relatively advanced level of vocabulary. For the sentence structures, to receive a high score, it is expected that the candidate demonstrates usage of various sentence structure and compound sentences instead purely using simple sentences. For the integrated writing section, your summary must be correct in content and reflect that you have truly understood the reading and listening material. For the independent writing section, there is no right or wrong answer, and as long as you can justify your thesis with evidence, you can take either stand and you will not be taken points of for taking a point of view that is different from your exam graders’. One thing to note about the TOEFL exam is that the higher number of words in an essay does not guarantee a higher score. Therefore, the quality is more important than the quantity.

This TOEFL writing is especially interesting for me to discuss because of its practicality. I tend to believe that the materials should be designed such that the students can really use the skills developed and the knowledge learned from these eight materials into the real world. The TOEFL writing is exactly what most students needs when they come to an English-speaking country to work or attend school. For the integrated writing section, students in classes usually need to listen to the professor while taking notes. This is a skill that can be developed through practicing the integrated writing section. In college, students often need to express his or her own opinion on a specific topic and this skill can be practiced through the independent writing section.

To sum up, the TOEFL writing denotes the most authorities writing materials in the world that is acknowledged by so many universities in the English as firstly speaking countries, must have its merits and reasons. Therefore, this project will analyze the materials further to see why they are such a good fit to measure students’ writing abilities in English.

Justificationand Summary

The TOEFL writing test is designed such that it meets many of the qualities outlined in the textbooks and discussed during the in-class meetings. When it comes to this e-portfolio, what is a must to mention is that this e-portfolio is made up of eight materials about the TOEFL writing. To put it more specifically, though these eight materials about TOEFL writing are illustrated from different perspectives and they focus on different aspects about TOEFL writing, they are still closely connected with each other in one way or another. Out of the 16 solid principles that can be used to evaluate the designing process, the TOEFL writing materials did fit learner characteristics, led to positive feelings and promoted relevant learning for the candidates.

First and foremost, it is a material that achieved an impact and this belongs to the “lead to positive feelings” section (Tomlinson, 2011,p.8). The material is designed using an attractive presentation of pictures and audio files. The content is appealing because the reading and listening section before the writing response can let you know more knowledge about certain events and stories going on. The material has the characteristic of achievable challenge because the independent writing section forces the test taker to think more and brainstorm on a certain topic that of concern to the society nowadays. By engaging in brainstorming activities, the candidate can develop a way of thinking comprehensively about a debate topic. In the paper of Hammond, it is mentioned that “brainstorm for 3 to 5 minutes” is one of top 10 strategies to raise the score, which can well justify for the inevitability of brainstorming activities. (Wallie Walker, 2007, p.4)

Second, the writing topics given in the material are perceived by learners as relevant and useful (Tomlinson, 2011,p.11). Since the topics are all realistic and are related to fields such as education, environment, economics, and politics, when a candidate thoroughly thinks about a certain topic, he or she will have more ideas to talk about when he is socializing with the others. The topics are all useful because as human beings living in the world, we should all pay attention to some popular issues going on around us.It will be beneficial if the candidates can learn to classify the topics in that it can help them have a basic idea about the scope of topics (Wallie Walker, 2007, p.8)In addition, when the candidate actually goes to study in a university in an English-speaking country, he or she will more or less encounter situations where he or she will be required to write a paper on those kinds of topics.

Third, still under the promote relevant learning category, the material exposes learners to authentic language (Tomlinson, 2011,p.13). The material as the reading and the listening portion that is written and recorded by native speakers. By reading and listening to those sections first, the candidate will have some input about what to write next. As stated in the textbook, “The materials should also stimulate learner interaction with the input rather than just passive reception of it” (Tomlinson, 2011,p.14). The material is designed such that candidates can first summarize what he or she has read or heard, then provide some comments and analysis about the input materials. This way, the candidate is interacting with the input material instead of simply taking it for granted and not giving any second thoughts on it.

Fourth, the material did draw attention to linguistic features of input because the candidates’ written material will be graded based on the grammar, the sentence structure, and the vocabulary used instead of simply based on the content of the writing (Tomlinson, 2011,p.14). Making many linguistic errors on your essay will result in lower scores (TOEFL iBT official website “About the test” page, 2017) The material is after all offered to those non-native speakers and one of the most basic elements that non-native speakers should learn about a new language is of course its grammar. On top of content, those elements in writing is always an important criterion to assess whether the writing material is of high quality or not. All of the criteria work together to determine the overall quality of the writing.

Fifth, the material did take into account that positive effects of instruction are usually delayed (Tomlinson, 2011,p.16). The writing section is a more comprehensive section than the previous reading, listening, or speaking sections alone because it required the candidate to receive some input and then produce his or her own output. The writing section also requires the candidate to demonstrate a mixture of skills such as vocabulary, sentence structure, grammar, and logical thinking. Since each and every single one of those skills takes time to acquire, then the conglomeration of all of those skills takes even more time to master. For the vocabulary, the candidate needs to know about ten thousand words in order to understand almost every word that will show up on the material, or to be able to infer the meaning of certain words from the context when they do not know that word. This is a process that requires much time and energy because you need to memorize those words if you do not live in an environment where many speak English. Let us suppose that someone with a basic vocabulary level of 5000 words wants to prepare the TOEFL test in a year. Then if he memorizes 50 words a day, he will need 100 days to go over the first round and he can review his vocabulary for three rounds before the test. The whole usage of modifiers, verb, pronouns, basic patterns and style has been explained in detail in order that fewer grammatical errors will be made (Wallie Walker, 2007, Pp. 27-176). This definitely takes time. Then there is the difference between knowing those words and being able to produce those words yourself. The first step is understanding the intakes and the second step is producing something of your own. In short, this is a material that requires much time and effort in order to achieve a high score.

Sixth, to ace the exam, one cannot rely on controlled practice (Tomlinson, 2011,p.22). This section is not a multiple-choice section or a fill in the blank section. One cannot become an expert by memorizing some sentences that were previously prepared and use those sentences directly on the exam because they might not fit into every single situation. The topics change and vary very much and those pre-prepared sentences will not help you much. Excellent essays are not the ones that use some sample sentences and phrases, rather, they are produced by the candidate in a creative way. Memorizing sample sentences is not an appropriate method to ace the exam because it can get you into the bad habit of plagiarism instead of producing your own material. The correct way should be for the candidate to read an ample amount of English literature and form his or her own style of English writing instead of focusing on controlled practice. Guo has proposed that syntactic complexity can take a role in winning higher score for the candidates, suggesting the importance of syntactic complexity (Liang, 2011, p.20).

Seventh, under the category of fit learner characteristics, the material required the candidates to be ready to learn the points being taught (Tomlinson, 2011,p.12). This is an advanced test and not for entry level English speakers. So the candidates have to have “gained sufficient mastery over the developmental features of the previous stage before teaching a new one” (Tomlinson, 2011, p.13). If the candidate’s English level is still too weak to take the TOEFL, then it is suggested that he or she build a more solid foundation before learning the material here.Just as what has been mentioned by Guo that integrated writing scores is closely related with education levels (Liang, 2011, p.17), which indicates that each and every candidate have to lay a solid foundation. In addition, the writing section is in itself a section where you need to master reading and listening first. Only by understanding the input materials can you produce your own output.

To sum up, a natural conclusion can be drawn that the writing section in the TOEFL test definitely satisfied many of the 16 solid principles under the three main categories, fit learner characteristics, lead to positive feelings, and promote relevant learning. It is an authoritative and popular test designed to measure the candidates’ English level and whether the candidate can be fit to live in an English-speaking country. By measuring the candidate’s comprehensive skill in reading, writing, listening, and speaking, the TOEFL test is an interesting test appropriate for analysis for this project.

Reference

About the TOEFL iBT® Test. (n.d.). Retrieved January 19, 2017, from http://www.ets.org/toefl/ibt/about

Guo, Liang. (2001). Product and Process in Toefl iBT Independent and Integrated Writing Tasks: A Validation Study. Dissertation, Georgia State University. Pp. 1-193.

Hammond, WW. (2007). Master TOEFL Writing Skills. Peterson’s. Pp. 1-202.

TOEFL iBT® Quick Prep. (n.d.). Retrieved January 19, 2017, from http://www.ets.org/toefl/ibt/prepare/quick_prep/

Tomlinson, B. (Ed.). (2011). Materials development in language teaching (2nd ed.). Cambridge, NY: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 8-22

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