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Essay代写:The origins of morality

2017-12-01 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Essay代写范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- The origins of morality,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了道德的起源。道德起源于人类的反思性认可的这种观点,主要代表人物是那些相信道德源于人类本性的道德哲学家。他们认为,人作为一种理智性动物,会对自己遇到的伦理道德问题进行反思,会对自己已经做了的某件事情的信念、动机等提出质疑。他们认为,在关于“真正的”道德理论反思之上发现我们依然愿意认可道德对我们的要求,那么这种道德理论就是规范性的。

morality,道德起源,英国代写,essay代写,论文代写

What is the origin or basis of morality, why people in the social life of moralityAncient and modern, different opinions, there is no consensus. This article attempts to explore the origin of morality from multiple dimensions, to seek the basis of the origin of morality, and ultimately to the essence.

Plato said: "You cannot just argue that justice is above injustice, and that it must be reasoned to understand a problem, that is, why is justice good, injustice is evil?" ' What does justice and injustice do to its owners? "This problem, in layman's terms, is actually about the origin of morality, it is the focus of the study of ethics, but also the problem to be discussed in this paper."

The origin and purpose of morality is the fundamental problem of normative ethics. This question, which has been debated since ancient times, can be summed up in four different ways.

There is a point of view of the origin of morality. They regard moral norms as the will of God, which is the only theory of wills. According to this view, the human's duty of morality originates from the order of the subject of the legislative authority to the moral actor. That is to say, you must do something morally or just, because it is God's order. Thus, the holder of this view argues that the normative nature of morality derives mainly from the will of legislators. Obviously, with the gradual development of the natural science, this view is a loophole, and then it is also the pursuit of a number of rational arguments retort.

This view holds that if the moral requirements are true, they are normative, and if there is a normative entity or fact that they rightly describe, then the moral requirements are true. The holders of this view generally establish moral norms by refuting the theories of other kinds of moral skeptics. Moore and Ross are typical representatives of realism. In fact, from the point of view of logic or mathematics theory, most of this kind of argumentation can be carried out with the help of mathematics and logical inference, for example, starting from the concept of "yuan" and reasoning and interpreting the moral concept derived from rational inference.

The idea that morality originates from the reflective acceptance of human beings is the main representative of the moral philosophers who believe that morality originates in human nature. They think, as a kind of sensible animal, people will reflect on their ethical problems, and will question the beliefs and motives of something that they have already done. They believe that the moral theory is normative in that we are still willing to recognize the demands of morality on the basis of reflection on "true" moral theory.

This view holds that the moral law is the law of the perpetrator's own will, the moral requirement is the requirement that the actors exert to themselves, and the normative requirement of morality must be found in the will of the actors themselves. Its representative is the contemporary Kantian behavior constructivism which is represented by Kant and Rawls. The moral behavior of human beings is based on the self-discipline of behavior, because of the ability of human beings to reflect on their own actions. Giving us authority over ourselves is precisely the kind of authority that makes moral demands normative.

This paper argues that, regardless of the point of view, the issue of moral norm is always the most basic problem in the study of ethics. According to the moral experience of the day, we seem to be more biased in that it stems from a kind of moral self-discipline and reflective recognition of human beings, but the external environment also has an undoubted influence on this norm.

Why is morality possible, that is, the origin and foundation of moral ethics, and why do people talk about morality in social life? Ancient and modern, divergent opinions, different.

From a biological point of view, Darwin's view of human morality as the continuation of animal instinct, which is actually a nature of the origin of morality. Because of the limitation of the level of scientific understanding at that time, Darwin could not scientifically explain the function of human labor, the formation of thought and the origin of morality, but he showed the biological premise and basis of the origin of morality, which is the great place of Darwin. A large number of biological studies have shown that human beings are born with moral qualities, and that some of the important structures of social behavior and morals have been stored in human genes.

American psychologist Kohlberg The theory of "three-level six-stage" moral development from the angle of psychology to explain the origin of morality. He believes that there are three different levels of six moral reasoning stages in the human development phase, and that six stages are developed from low to high in a constant order. According to this view, the development of individual morality is developed from the beginning with the strong self-interest to a kind of behavior pattern which obeys the morals and abandons the pure egoism, which is caused by the accumulation of people's experience and the development of cognition. Therefore, psychologists who hold this view believe that the individual's ethical development strategy has both genetic factors and the impact of the acquired environment.

As a member of the social group, the individual has an instinctive demand for the cultural and moral values in the society, which comes from the transcendence of Man and from the unfinished nature of man. Some sociologists believe that the reason why people and animals have the essential difference is that people are always pursuing the moral value of truth, goodness and beauty, not just the material demand of an animal.

Morality, like all cultures, is the product of social development, the creation of human beings, the demand for the survival and development of human beings, and the service of human survival and development. This fact shows that man is the subject of creating morality and using morality, while morality is an object created and used by people. From this point of view, we can give the moral definition, that is, the moral is in a certain social groups of the general standard of behavior and quality of the sum of norms, by the public opinion and the internal beliefs of the direct maintenance of the promotion of good and evil as the basic evaluation of the word, responsible for providing people with To meet the needs of people to deal with interpersonal relationships and self-realization. This is the essence of morality.

In the process of social development, there is no ontological and sacred morality which has nothing to do with the needs of human existence and development, nor is it the moral imperative of the highest purpose and the highest value, so that it can not be placed above the people at all times, and it cannot be moral and moral. When a moral once had a beneficial character that now no longer has the satisfaction of the human existence and development needs, it loses the basis of existence and the reason for the people to continue to rely on it.

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