欢迎来到51Due,请先 | 注册
关注我们: 51due论文代写二维码 51due论文代写平台微博
英国论文代写,英国essay代写知名品牌微信

Essay代写范文

为您解决留学中生活、学习、工作的困难、疑惑
释放自我

Essay代写:The national security

2017-11-14 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Essay代写范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- The national security,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了国家安全。国家安全指的是国家的安全不受外部和内部的威胁,这包括保护其领土完整,主权和国家利益。进一步扩大还需要保证人民的安全,维护国家在全球事务中的利益。国家有各种各样的工具来维护自己的安全,维护政治领导,外交,经济实力等。

Introduction

National security is the security of the country from external and internal threats. This includes protection of its territorial integrity, sovereignty and national interests. In further expansion it entails security for its people and safeguarding national interests in global affairs. Internal turmoil and disorder can hamper national interests, threaten the lives of citizens, create law and order problem, and make the country vulnerable to external threats. Such a state cannot progress nor can the citizens feel secure. There are various instruments of the state to maintain its security and safeguard its interests like political leadership, diplomacy, economic clout, armed forces, police forces and so on.

Armed forces of a nation are primarily responsible for safeguarding the territorial integrity from external threats and the police forces are responsible for maintaining law and order situation and guarding the nation against internal threats. In the Indian context the police force is a state matter and therefore maintaining law and order in the state is the responsibility of the state and state police is the main instrument. Besides at the national level there are large number of CPMFs which can be employed by the centre government in order to settle any IS situation developing in any state.

Blurring of Security Threats

In the present changing security environment, it is becoming difficult to separate internal and external threats. Internal cohesion and strength fosters a nations’ overall strength and deters the adversaries, boosts the morale of citizens and safeguards the country’s security. A country in chaos cannot be safe from external threats. Internal security is an important measure of national security because of the undermentioned reasons:-

Internal instability entices adversaries to interfere in domestic affairs in order to weaken the country.

Some threats like terrorism emanate from external soil but cause violence and disruption in the country. Considering terrorist attacks in Mumbai on 26/11; it is difficult to classify them as an internal security problem or an act of war against the nation?

Threats like trans-national organized crime, drug trafficking, cyber crimes, money laundering and pandemics may arise in foreign lands, but also need to be tackled within the boundaries of a nation state. Should it be classified as an external or internal threat?

While effective policing was always crucial in times of wars, it has assumed importance in dealing effectively with present day challenges. Modern day threats cannot be tackled by militaries alone. More often than not , it is the police and PMFs which have to fight them either directly or with the aid of armed forces. Sometimes, armed forces may execute a major operation, as in Afghanistan and Iraq, but finally effective policing becomes critical to achieving the ultimate objectives of war.

Limitations of Armed Forces

Armed forces are created and meant to fight an external enemy. They are trained to kill, decimate and destroy. Militaries are not appropriate for handling internal threats and many of the non-conventional threats to national security. Success in countering these threats can be ensured either through effective policing or coupled with the support of Armed Forces. Excessive involvement of the military in managing internal security is highly problematic. As mentioned earlier militaries are not trained to fight among people [1] .

Excessive involvement of military in civil strife can exhaust the armed forces and blunt their efficacy. Their engagement for extended periods, as in Jammu and Kashmir and in the North Eastern region can tire them out and reduce their efficiency. Thus the effectiveness of the armed forces in fighting an external enemy is seriously diminished in the process. The extent of democratic control is inversely proportionate to the democratic governments dependence on the armed forces. The situation gets compounded when armed forces are used for purposes they are not meant for like internal situation. The Military is the last resort of the state and it should be called in to act only when no other state instrument can be effectively deployed. In the context of fighting the Naxals the army rightly has reserved their deployment being the IS problem however has offered expertise of fighting the guerilla in terms of training the police forces. To quote COAS, "The Naxalite problem is a law and order problem, which is a state subject. It stems from certain issues on the ground, be it of governance, be it of administration, be it of socio-economic factors. Since it is not a secessionist movement, I think our polity is astute and wise enough to know the implications of using the Army against their own people'' [2] .

Government Approach [3] . Government has responded in a holistic manner, in the fields of security,governance, development, administration and moulding public perception. In dealing with LWE problem, it has emerged , after various high-level discussions and interactions with the State Governments , that an integrated approach would deliver results. In view of this and consequent to the analysis of the spread and trends of LWE violence has resulted in 33 affected districts in eight States being considered for special attention in the fields of economic development. Out of these 33 districts, the most affected eight districts in Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand , Bihar and Orissa have been taken up for implementation of integrated development and security.

Review and Monitoring Mechanism [4] . Large number of reviewing and monitoring mechanisms have been put in place with regards to the different aspects of LWE scenario which include following:-

Standing Committee of Chief Ministers of States, under the chairmanship of Union Home Minister, in order to work out a well coordinated policy and specific methodology to deal with the LWE issues on political, security and economic development fronts.

A high-level Task Force under Cabinet Secretary has been formulated for promoting well coordinated efforts across wide spectrum of development and security measures.

A Coordination Centre chaired by the Union Home Secretary to review and coordinate the efforts of the concerned State Governments, in which the Chief Secretaries and Directors General of Police represent the state.

A Task Force under Special Secretary (Internal Security) in the MHA, with senior officers from Central paramilitary forces, Intelligence agencies, and SPFs, to dwell upon the operational steps is required to deal with the LWE and coordinate between authorities of different States.

Inter Ministerial Group (IMG), headed by Additional Secretary (Naxal Management), with officers from Development Ministries and Planning Commission, to supervise effective implementation of development schemes in LWE affected states.

Measures Taken to Tackle LWE [5] . The responsibility for tackle the LWE menace rests with the State Governments who have been advised to take following corrective measures:-

Time-bound action to fill up existing vacancies, particularly in the Districts and Police Stations in LWE affected areas in order to meet the people –police ratio.

Provide suitable incentives to persons who are posted in these remote areas and formulate a periodic rotation policy.

Action to ensure security of the Police Stations and police outposts in the areas affected by LWE and provide the required secure infrastructure in the form of buildings, perimeter fencing, barracks, armory, mess arrangements, etc.

Earmark a reasonable component of the SPFs to be provided with commando/jungle warfare training, for which training facilities to be established within the State. Meanwhile the facilities of Army, Central Paramilitary Forces and other States to be used.

A special thrust should be given in terms of strengthening the intelligence gathering arrangements in the LWE infested areas.

Follow the laid down SOPs for various types of police and security force operations so as to pre-empt possible threats and minimize own casualties.

Focused measures should be adopted to ensure that the field and intermediate level functionaries of key departments are available and accessible to the people. This will entail filling up of posts/vacancies and also provisioning of secure arrangements for their stay.

Identify critical deficiency in infrastructure and development aspects in the affected areas , especially in the context of connectivity. Formulate plans to ensure the timely completion of such projects.

Create mechanisms to address public grievance to create an overall positive environment and build the confidence of the people in the administrative machinery.

Under a well planned strategy, a counter propaganda and publicity campaign should also be executed.

Security Response : Analysis

Today in our country the state police forces(SPFs) and the CPMFs are fighting the Naxals in all the affected areas in most of the states however have not been able to control the menace to the desired level. Despite the enhanced deployment of the troops the incidents of violence have not stopped. Infact the causalities of 76 CRPF personnel in Dantewada district exemplifies the poor preparedness of the police forces to fight the Naxals [6] . Various case studies on Naxal violence related issues indicate the inadequacy in the training imparted to the police forces. Though the CPMFs have adequate infrastructure available however the state police forces in most of the states lack the same. The SPFs in most of the states are required to be transformed into combat force rather than law and order force. Besides police training other factors leading to ineffective policing are lack of political will, inadequate policies and poor leadership. The SPF is the most important as it is the first response of the security mechanism.               

State Police Forces (SPFs)

Organisation [7] . As per article 246 of Constitution of India ‘Police’ is a state subject which means that each state forms rules and regulations that govern the police force. These rules and regulations are contained in the police manuals for each state force. The head of the police force is the DGP who is responsible to the state government for the administration of the force and also advising the state government on policing matters. The SPFs are organized, trained and equipped for maintaining law and order, investigate crime and community policing. The armed police and Indian Reserve Battalion (IRB) are there to augment the efforts of police. Therefore the police forces of a state have inherent limitation to take on offensive combat which is being posed by the Naxals. The traditional law and order police lacks combat potential to deal with Naxals effectively. Besides they are not in a position to provide suitable assistance to the CPMFs when employed alongside. The police organizations in India are as given in Appendix ‘B’.

Hierarchy [8] . It is important to understand the functioning chain of the state police. At the apex is the DG who is the overall force commander. The state is divided into Zones (in few states) where the police affairs are looked after by the officer of the rank of IG. Zones are further subdivided into ranges. Each range consists of few districts and is administered by the officer of the rank of DIG. Under the DIG is the SP who heads the district police force. The district is divided into sub-division which is headed by the ASP/DSP. Each sub-division has got number of police stations headed by the inspector/ sub- inspector having specific area of jurisdiction. The number of police stations will depend upon the size and the population of the district/ sub-division. The police station is the basic unit of the police administration in a district and all crime has to be reported and recorded in the police station. Even in the Naxal affected areas the state police forces are deployed in these police stations which is tactically unsuitable and unsound as per the tactical understanding.

Inadequate Training. The SPFs in general lack physical and mental stamina, shooting capability, tactical acumen and discipline. The standard of training of the SPFs employed against the Naxals is much below the satisfactory level. In some states the SPF personnel have not undergone any refresher training in their entire career. Due to over commitment police finds it difficult to spare troops for training. In addition lack of adequate infrastructure and resources for training adds to the inadequacy. To quote an example until eight years Bihar did not have any police training college which became part of Jharkhand when it became a state [9] . The MHA has now planned to open large number of CTJW college to train police forces in guerilla warfare. Steps are also being taken to train SPFs personnels at Army and CPMFs training institutions [10] .

Police to People Ratio.  The police to people ratios are very low which has affected the functionality of SPFs as there are large number of deficiencies in terms of the force strength [11] . Even within the organization the force has large dichotomy as far as the strength is concerned. The pyramid of the police force structure is shown in Appendix ‘C’.

Political Interference. In addition to the above drawbacks one of the major factor responsible for the present state of the SPFs is the state politics. In India every state has a Director General of Police Forces of that state. The ruling party of the state invariably has the say over the functioning of the SPFs. More often than not the legalities turn as per the political will. The untimely shunting of DG CRPF Mr Vikram Srivastav and replaced by Mr K Vijay Kumar is an apt example of political interference.

Police Reforms [12] . The Indian police is known for power abuse, corruption and inefficiency. It is also accepted that the police are poorly paid, inadequately trained and are ‘kicked around like footballs’ by political masters. Governments over the years have not taken adequate measures to improve the police force which is governed by archaic law passed in 1861 [13] . On 22 September 2006, the Supreme Court of India by means of a historic judgment in case of Prakash Singh vs. Union of India instructed central and state governments to comply with set of seven directives to start police reforms. The Court has given these directives to meet two fold objectives:- functional autonomy for the police - by tenure security, streamlined system of appointment and transfer, and establishing a "buffer body" between the government and the police - and enhanced police accountability, for performance of the organization and individual misconduct. The Police Act of 1861 is archaic and continues to govern policing, inspite amendments in governance system. Two former Directors-General of Police filed a Public Interest Litigation (PIL) in the Supreme Court in 1996, asking the court to direct the central and state governments to focus towards the poor quality of policing in India. However things are contrary on the ground. State governments are reluctant to give away the control of the police or to implement modernization of the force. In the year 2008, the supreme court instituted a monitoring committee comprising of Justice KT Thomas, Kamal Kumar (retired DGP) and Dharminder Sharma (Additional Home Secretary) to moniter the state compliance of the court’s instructions. Common Wealth Human Rights Initiative (CHRI) is an informal member of the committee. The states have formulated new acts but are merely o paper and require a lot to be done. The states with reformed Police Acts are Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Assam, Uttarakhand , Tripura, Rajasthan, Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, Haryana, Tamil Nadu and Gujarat. The first and supposedly the worst than the 1861 Act was formulated in Bihar.

Police Modernisation. For the modernisation of the police force the Union government earmarks a budget every year. The states are supposed to project the plans and budgetry requirement. They are unable to spend the money appropriately and use it to beautify the police headquarters, buy some vehicles or wireless radio sets. The MPF schemes are put in place to meet the objectives of making the SPFs self sufficient, meet the identified deficiencies by the BPR&D,enable SPFs to control IS and law and order situation and have a balanced development of SPFs. The focus of the MPF scheme is on strengthening the police infrastructure at the cutting-edge level through constructing secure police stations, equipping them with required mobility, modern weaponry, communication equipment, forensic set-up and housing, etc. the Annual Action Plan is prepared by the state government and one approved by the MHA the budget [14] is allotted for the same with special provisions for the Naxal affected states [15] . Some police officers are of the opinion that the MPF scheme is provisioning quality equipment, latest gadgets, modern computers, state of art GPS, etc which is highly commendable. But, the real problem is the standard of manpower recruited. The man behind these gadgets i.e., police constabulary is not capable of using them. For example, the data of remote sensing satellite is of no use to the personnel manning the poice stations. Police constables in Bihar and Jharkhand are recruited with VII class education level. Inspite of the BPR&D’s guidelines no corrective measure have been taken. Jharkhand High Court has also directed the State Government to recruit matriculate constabulary, however State’s political leadership has overruled the court’s directive by passing fresh legislation in State Assembly which was subsequently challenged in the court however the status quo remains. The Police authorities are unable to convince the legislature on this issue [16] .

Service Conditions.  It has been highlighted that the police welfare and improvement has always been low priority if our country from times immemorial. Besides the service conditions only are becoming from bad to worse. There is sincere need tofocus on this issue to improve upon the working environment of the police forces within the state as well at the centre.

Political Resolve. No strategy against the Naxalites will ever be successful without the political resolve. If the political leadership does not look at the problem as a major hurdle towards the peace, growth and development of the country the problem of Naxalism will continue to persist

Is CRPF the Best Option Available and How Effective is it in Anti Naxal Operations?

In the present environment when the the SPFs are big and evident “NO” for operating successfully against the Naxals what options do we have? If we analyse the options of the state government there are none. Moreso the political leaders like Shibu Shoren [17] who inspite of being the ex chief minister of Jharkhand has said that he supports the Naxal movement, do not provide any hope for our country to counter the Naxal menace from political point of view. As per the constitution of India the centre government can assist the state government in handling law and order situations by providing additional forces to the states. Therefore the central government has provided CRPF battalions to the states to beef up the security mechanism. There are two schools of thought as far as the employment of CRPF against the Naxals is concerned i.e. in support and against.

CRPF is Not the Best Option [18] .  The inadequacies of CRPF [19] surfaced after the Dantewada incident and to name a few are poor training, lack of leadership, low moral and poor command and control. “CRPF is essentially a law and order force rather than for counter-insurgency operations. Even during their mandatory counter-insurgency training, their basic mindset is not appropriate. Moreover, leadership in CRPF is not praiseworthy. Unless troops and officers are trained and are in the thick of action together, the leadership will continue to suffer. As was evident in the Dantewada incident, the lack of able leadership led to flouting of the SOP causing death of 76 troops” [20] was the opinion of Mr E N Rammohan, retired DG BSF who conducted the enquiry into the incident and has further suggested to replace CRPF by BSF and ITBP. It seems that there is a need to raise a new force in the lines of the ‘GREYHOUNDS’ of Andhra Pradesh. As per Mr Kashmir Singh, Joint Secretary (Naxal Management), MHA, the CPMFs are targeted as that is the only source of weapons for Naxals. Regarding intelligence setup , he said “There is a State Multi-Agency Centre (SMAC) at state level which has inter-state intelligence sharing meetings daily and a central level Multi Agency Centre (MAC) which meets adequately” [21] .

CRPF is the Best Option.  There is another school of thought that eiterates that employment of the CRPF against the Naxalites is the only best option available with the government. It is often asked that in the given situation is there a better option available to fight the Naxalism? Probably the answer is no. In the last decade CRPF has grown in size and the deployment has increased from J&K to North East to fight insurgency. The leadership is considered to be battle hardened, experienced and robust. The problem in the Naxal affected areas is mainly in terms of time and space. The methods of J&K and North East can not be copypasted to the Naxal areas. The force will take time to understand the situation and then evolve best practices. The SOPs can not be same for all the regions. At the same time the Naxalites have already established a good base of operations and intelligence with large population support. CRPF is actually operating in a void, where there has been no governance. Historically, these regions never saw an effective state government. The mechanisms of public health to legal institutions have been pathetically weak, which is obviously being exploited by the Naxals. The local population , especially the poor are not with the State but sympathize with the Naxalites. The DG, CRPF Mr K Vijay Kumar has accepted that CRPF has become the mainstay of the National response [22].

Analysis

In this chapter it is seen that the SPFs are actually ineffective however the first response of the state government. The inadequacies and limitations have been aptly highlighted. There is a need of deep analysis and study to make the SPFs more effective to suit the present day requirement of the security scenario. The SPFs are the first line of defence and is directly linked to the people of the state. The failure of the SPFs actually calls for a concern by the Central Government. At their end the government does not have much of the choice / options to beef up the security environment. In other words CRPF forms the second line of defence. However CRPF has its own shortcomings to tackle LWE. Therefore there is a need to strengthen this force by training, equipping and providing effective leadership. Another problem as I see it is the command and control of the CRPF when deployed in the state. The CRPF/ CPO comes under the command of the state police for operations who is generally the SP of a district. There are inherent problems of command and control due to the district and state boundaries along with the obvious professional ethics of these forces.

Conclusion

Mr Pranab Mukherjee has termed Naxalism as the Biggest threat to nation’s security and peace [23] while presiding over the 71st Raising Day celebrations of

CRPF. Truly so most of the efforts of the security mechanism of the nation is directed towards the LWE menace. The funds being directed towards this issue are colossal and at the same time the threat looms large 24x7x365. The government has identified that the first line of defence i.e. police is the weakest and it is essential to empower this large force for a secure future. There are large number of modernization steps undertaken by the government. The research will now address this issue of modernization of police forces in the light of the growing threat from LWE.

想要了解更多英国留学资讯或者需要英国代写,请关注51Due英国论文代写平台,51Due是一家专业的论文代写机构,专业辅导海外留学生的英文论文写作,主要业务有essay代写paper代写、assignment代写。在这里,51Due致力于为留学生朋友提供高效优质的留学教育辅导服务,为广大留学生提升写作水平,帮助他们达成学业目标。如果您有essay代写需求,可以咨询我们的客服QQ800020041

51Due网站原创范文除特殊说明外一切图文著作权归51Due所有;未经51Due官方授权谢绝任何用途转载或刊发于媒体。如发生侵犯著作权现象,51Due保留一切法律追诉权。-ZR

我们的优势

  • 05年成立,已帮助上万人
  • 24小时专业客服
  • 团队成员都毕业于全球著名高校
  • 保证原创,支持检测

英国站