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英国代写:The influence of Chinese characters on the languages of East Asia

2017-06-14 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Essay代写范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- The influence of Chinese characters on the languages of East Asia,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了汉字对东亚地区语言的影响。长期以来,汉字一直在朝鲜半岛、日本列岛和越南等周边地区流传,形成了一个东南亚的文化圈。随着时间的推移,汉字在东亚语言中已被广泛接受。直到今天,汉字的影响也能在日本和韩国的语言中看到。虽然日本和韩国已经完全废除了汉字的使用,并创造了一个新的语言体系,但他们仍然使用大量从汉字中借用的词汇,这点在很多著作中能看到。

Chinese characters,汉字,英国代写,英国论文代写,essay代写

A Korean official called Ch’oe Malli under king Sejong objected the creation of the new Korean writing system strongly and said that the barbarians should adopt the Chinese way of writing. The assumption behind it is that the backward countries and races are transformed and need to learn from the advanced one. I do not agree with statement fully as although it pointed out that the evolvement of writing system of East Asia is greatly influenced by the Chinese writing, it failed to admit that Chinese writing are influenced by barbarians, and those barbarian countries can choose what to learn and create new language.

For a long time, Chinese characters have been spreading to the Korean peninsula, the Japanese archipelago and the surrounding areas such as Vietnam, forming the so-called East Asian cultural circle. Chinese character is a symbol of Chinese culture, a far advanced culture compared to the neighboring countries before the modern times. The oracle bones are ancestors of later Chinese writing system and have appeared in Chinese culture in 1200 B.C.E . Although Chinese characters belong to the concept of linguistic domain, it is closely linked with at the same time the survival of a civilization, and history, politics and culture and many other factors. It is the important medium of disseminating cultural information. Thus, Chinese writing system is a symbol of China's advanced culture, so it was introduced into the Korean Peninsula first, and then Japan and other regions. The Korean and the Japanese borrowed a lot of elements of Chinese scripts to write their own language. Just as Korean official called Ch’oe Malli said that the barbarians should be transformed by means of adopting Chinese ways.  In addition, they learn Chinese characters in order to not only further the understanding of China, but also to master and understand a large number of Chinese books. Before the modern era, most books written by men are composed in literary Chinese. All of these factors contributed to the spread of Chinese characters in East Asia. And during this process of borrowing, they also try to create a civilized society through the introduction of China's advanced culture and systems. At the same time in this process, they get rid of language environment where only the use of oral is possible and gradually the Chinese character is used as a means of writing. Thus, at the same time, the internal functions of Chinese characters as a means of marking the language have begun to be valued. The spreading trajectory of Chinese characters is clearly hierarchical. The people who are accessible to Chinese classical works or proficient in it are in general the ruling class of Japan as well as the aristocratic class. Over time, the Chinese characters and writing system have become common and widely accepted in East Asian languages. With the evolvement of thousands of years of history, it has become a writing system which has experienced long period of application and development in the East Asian cultural circle.

Until today, the influence of Chinese characters can be seen in the language of Japan and Korea. Although Japan and Korea have completely abolished the use of Chinese characters and created a new language system, they still use a large number of vocabularies which are borrowed from Chinese characters have a lot of literary work in the history related to the Chinese writing system. For example, warrior tales are written with a mixed Chinese and Japanese style  And the application of Chinese characters in Korea still can be seen in today and in the past literary works. For example, official documents written in Chinese and its recorder of court culture in the Heian Period; also “Serious” texts and informal text in the period of Murasaki Shikibu, and among them, there are some excellent literary works such as Tale of Genji . In spite of this, there are various problems that are difficult to solve in the process. Therefore, although South Korea in the daily life has achieve to express the basic daily concepts without the use of Chinese characters, names, of persons and names of road signs and other special areas still retain the Chinese characters by mixed labeling method. For example, an early recorded name about Korea--- Chaoxian (Korean:Choso ˘n).comes from the Chinese characters chao. A lot of places’ names of southwest Asia, Africa and so on come from Chinese transcription  Although some words do not show the signs of the Chinese characters, they can be traced back to the Chinese in terms of pronunciation. For example, idu in Korea meaning verb endings are from Chinese pronunciation. Japan has adopted a policy of consistent Chinese characters through the use of Chinese characters and national characters. Japan has always believed that Chinese characters are part of their national language. It has allowed Japanese people to continue to use Chinese characters and Kana in their daily lives.

However, Chinese writing systems and cultures were influenced or changed by other cultures that were labeled as barbarians. For example, tonal pattern of Chinese poetic meter came from the Buddhist religious verse and the complex quantitative meters of Sanskrit in the Southern Dynasties . Also Indian text on yoga is introduced into china and leads to the appereance of word “chan”from relevant Indian word. It can be seen that there are in fact words in Chinese language with a source of Buddhism. Chinese characters and writing system have been under the influence of culture in the East Asia. In addition, in the warring period, the state of Qin was thought as a rather barbarian tribes as people there were rather good at fighting. But later, Chinese writing systems are influenced by the barbarian tribes after the establishment of Qin dynasty who reformed the writing system of China. Subsequently, there was Mongol conquest. It influenced the Chinese writing in an indirect way. When the elite and Chinese knowledgeable person found it hard to find a post in the government, they turned to drama creation and improve the quality of such script. When the modernization began, Japan is quick in the absorbing Western culture. So later, Chinese people introduced a lot of new words by translating Japanese words. There are interactions between the writing systems in East Asia.

In addition, facing the failure of Chinese writing system’s adaptability, people in the Korean peninsula, Japan and Vietnam and other regions in East Asia create their own writing system. In the process of borrowing Chinese characters to mark the native language, they gradually found that Chinese characters are incompatible with their own language. Korean language is totally different from Chinese, causing problems of using Chinese graphs. By the ninth century, Japanese have developed a syllabary---kana, which changed the Chinese script a lot. And king Sejong organized people to invent a new alphabet in 1443 to allow the public learn and acquire knowledge. After the modernization period of East Asia, the Korean peninsula, Japan and other regions have begun to promote the localization process of Chinese characters, by borrowing and imitation of Chinese characters for the creation of new writing system. But because it is the beginning of the creation of new text, so the East Asian regions can not immediately achieve the same oral language and writing system. These new writing systems can only be used as a subsidy. Although Chinese characters lose the authority of the common writing system function, it is still popular in the community as a whole. The process of continuously perfecting this system of language and characters are conducted in a gradual manner in Japan and Korea in general. For example, the writing style Iryon is like the nonparallel, simple, direct "ancient writing style" of guwen in Chinese. In fact, they integrated the Chinese characters into the native language system. Also, there are no distinctive “Korean” ethnics or culture existed in the past, and even after political unity people within the state did not have the same language and identity. As a result of the phenomenon of difference between oral languages between the Korean people of different regions, it also contributed to the continued widespread application of these characters in those countries. The ability of Korean and Japanese people to create new language is fully shown during their independence movement. The difficulty of reading Chinese characters also speeds up the loss process of Chinese writing system as a common language in this area. In modern time, In Korea which was once dominated by external forces for long time, Chinese characters were regarded as external writings. In order to maintain the purity of the nation, Korea and Japan tried to restrict the use of Chinese characters. Although there are many Chinese loanwords in Korea, it does not sound like Chinese at all in terms of Korean native vocabulary and phonology, and this is the way some modern Korean nationalists use to emphasize Korean uniqueness. So, they are trying to get rid of the Chinese language trace from national language system, and this is connected with ethnic purism and independent autonomy.

The ancient China is regarded as the core and the central region of disseminating cultural information. The Korean peninsula, Japan and Vietnam and other regions belong to the same cultural circle. Chinese characters and writing system are spreading to East Asia, where political, historical, cultural and other factors play a key role. They all accepted the Chinese advanced culture with the Chinese writing system as medium, and borrowed Chinese characters to mark the native language. But the barbarians also influence Chinese way of writing. And so called “barbarian” country also have initiative of the choice of language to learn and ability to create new language.

Bibliography

De Bary, William Theodore. Sources of East Asian Tradition. Vol. 1, New York: Columbia University Press, 2008

Ebrey, Patricia Buckley, A. Walthall, and J. B. Palais. 2008. Pre-modern East Asia: to 1800: a cultural, social, and political history. 2nd edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Haboush, JaHyun Kim, ed. The Memoirs of Lady Hyegyong: The Autobiographical Writings of a Crown Princess of Eighteenth-Century Korea. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1996.

Ledyard, Gari. "The Kangnido: A Korean World Map, 1402." In Circa 1492: Art in the Age of Exploration, edited by Jay A. Levenson, 329–32. Washington: National Gallery of Art, 1991.

Shirane, Haruo, ed. Traditional Japanese Literature: An Anthology, Beginnings to 1600. New York: Columbia University Press, 2007.

Seth, Michael J.  A History of Korea from Antiquity to the Present. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc, 2011.

Selected Slides L4-L5.pdf

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