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英国代写:Levels of cultural exchange on the silk road

2017-06-13 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Essay代写范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的英国essay代写范文- Levels of cultural exchange on the silk road,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了丝绸之路上的文化交流。在古代,旅游和交通手段不发达的时代,丝绸之路是东西方交流的重要方式之一。随着道路的成熟,文化交流在日益深入的层面上发生着。数世纪以来,丝绸之路所带来的经济、技术和信息交流是全球化的主要推动力。

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In ancient times when means of traveling and communication were underdeveloped, the silk road was one of the most important ways of communicate between the east and the west. With the maturity of the path, the communication and cultural exchanges were happening in an increasingly profound level. Over centuries economic, technology and information exchange brought by the silk road acted as the major driving forces of globalization.

The economic exchange, which is trade between China, India, the Middle East and Europe Started at around 100 A.D. As one of the most popular commodities on the silk road, silk was first produced in China as early as 3000 B.C. However, it was only until 1 A.D. when silk was first seen in Rome (*). The luxurious material quickly became popular among the Roman royals and nobles. In the following, two of the greatest empires on earth began sending envoys to each other. In addition to silk, tea leaves and china from China, spices and gems from India and glass crafts from the Arabia also gained quick popularity over centuries of commerce (*). The significance of the trading activities lie in the broadening of horizons of different cultures. Before silk road, most of the cultures in the world were in isolation on the global scale. The establishment of the silk road opened endless possibilities for the communications, understanding and clash of different cultures. One of the most direct consequence of it include the invasions of the Mongols in the 12th century, who made their conquering following the path of the silk road, turning it into the road of massacre (*).

Along with the booming of economy brought by the silk road to the cultures along it, more significant exchanges were happening in the technological level. Paper was first made in China in 300 B.C. (*) The technology was later spread to the Arabians. As a media for the Buddhist scriptures, the invention of paper helped the religion of Buddhism to be rooted in major Asian cultures. During the Byzantine Empire ages, papers were sold by the Arabians to the Europeans. It needs little explanation of how important the introduction of the technology was to the western civilization. Together with new printing technologies, paper making had increased the efficiency of knowledge spread by hundreds of times. Bibles, code of law and other educational materials in paper became available to more and more people, which greatly promoted the development of science, technology and religion in Medieval Europe, laying solid foundations for the later Renaissance Movement. In the meantime, the eastern cultures were also learning new technologies. The need of the different cultures has shaped the way of technology as well. For example, the glass work by the Persians during the period were greatly influenced by the Chinese artistic style, indicating a deeper level of communication between cultures (*).

Despite the success in exchanges of economy and technology, most of the activities were still on the official and commercial levels, due to the high expenses of the activities. One of the greatest and earliest adventurers, Marco Polo, brought something back that changed the situation. It was neither the technology nor goods that Marco Polo brought back that changed the world, it was his stories. In the book of Marco Polo’s travels, there were detailed descriptions of the cultures that he visited in 20 years time (*). From the gold, gems and spices in abundance in India, to the silk, porcelain and tea from China, the merchant from Venice showed the world the marvels and richness of the great eastern empires (*). Although the so called “exchange” of information was mostly single-sided, the fascination created by Marco Polo in Europe was probably the most influential event happened in the silk world. With the book quickly becominga best seller, the Europeans were ready to set sail for the world. Many of the great navigators, including Cristoforo Colombo, were deeply motivated and inspired by the book.

With exchanges in economy, technology and information, the silk road has played a crucial role in the process of globalization. Some may argue that the expansions of the Europeans were disastrous for less developed cultures. Even the great ancient civilization, China and India, were not prepared for the change brought by the westerners. However, the process of change is often painful, even bloody in history. In general, development of civilization and flattening of the world will push the changes into positive directions.

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