The Philippines is the world's third largest English-speaking country. English education in the Philippines has undergone the stage of American English education during the colonial period of the United States, the development of Mandarin during the period of self-government, and bilingual education after the independence of the Philippines. This paper begins with the origin of English in the Philippines, reviews the development of English in the Philippines, analyzes the existing problems of contemporary English education in the Philippines, and provides reference for the comparative study of English and Philippine.
The Republic of the Philippines is located on the southeast coast of the Pacific Ocean and consists of 7107 islands with a population of 91077287, of which 34.5% are aged 0-14. According to Philippine official statistics, the country has 11 languages and 87 dialects, the vast majority of the Malay - Polynesian language. The main languages of the Philippines are Filipino, English, Spanish and local languages and dialects. Among them, the Philippines and English is the official language. The main national languages are Bicol, Hiligayoun, Inocarlo, Tagalog, Cebuano and so on.
English was first landed in the Philippines with the British invasion of Manila in 1762, but only a handful of people used English at the time and did not have a widespread and sustained impact on the local scene. In 1898, the US occupation of the Philippines, the US colonial authorities attach great importance to the indoctrination of the local residents, one of the colonial platform is to set up education. In May 1898, Corregidor Island fell into the hands of the Americans, the US military in the island opened its first school. August 13, 1898, shortly after the occupation of Manila, the United States, and opened seven schools. William McKinnon, the Catholic priest of the First California Volunteer, was appointed to oversee these schools. The US military to each school equipped with an English teacher, some pastors and soldiers to become the first teacher. US military in the Philippines opened about 1,000 schools, to September 1, 1900, the total number of students about 10 million people.
The United States ruled the Philippines for nearly half a century. During this period, the American colonists implemented a series of colonial policies, which influenced and changed Filipino society from politics, economy, culture and education, and raised the cultural level of the Filipinos objectively.
After the cross-century development, the Philippines has established a complete education system, but in the development process is still facing many problems, such as public education has been faced with teachers, teaching materials, teaching aids and other resources shortage.
The successive governments of the Philippines have different emphasis on their language education policies. From the United States colonial rule to the present, the Philippines has developed a total of four constitutional: 1889 Maloros Constitution, the 1935 Constitution of the Republic, the Marcos Constitution of 1973 and the 1987 Constitution, although the use of language is written every time However, due to the change of regime, the incoherence of language policy in the constitution makes the policy of language education in the Philippines changing, and the promotion of Mandarin is not satisfactory.
In the 30 years of the implementation of bilingual education, did not achieve the desired results, whether English or the results of the Philippines are not as bilingual education before the implementation. There are some problems in the introduction and implementation of bilingual education: the bilingual education policy formulated by the Ministry of Education lacks a strong theoretical basis. Bilingual policy ignores children's learning methods and mother-tongue-based language learning; in addition, the policy masks socio-cultural issues in education, as local language is only used as a medium of instruction, some teachers as members of the language group cannot well bilingual Education policy into the teaching process, which greatly affected the effectiveness of bilingual education. Second, the Ministry of Education does not advocate research-based policy decisions in policy formulation, but rather depends more on the attitudes of governments, legislators and donors. For example, Arroyo advocated a policy of using English as the main medium of instruction, as a result of his commitment to employment in the Philippine call center industry and resource management. In addition, more than 200 congressional representatives signed House Bill 4701, which aims to teach English as a primary medium from the third year of primary school, while the Filipino language serves only as a course. House bill 3719, which calls for the use of mother tongue as the language of instruction at the primary level, raised objections.
In addition, the question of the teaching language of basic education in the Philippines has been in dispute. In rural areas, English teaching and English learning take a considerable amount of time, but few opportunities to use English, curriculum content and student real life out of line, which is the primary school students in the Philippines over the past 30 years, the high dropout rate important one of the reasons.
In the current Philippine teachers, a large part of the teachers are the original implementation of bilingual education policy students, their English language ability to meet the teaching requirements, part of the teachers' language skills even worse than students. In the 2004 test, only 20% of the teachers passed the English proficiency test.
In the area of review and selection of textbooks, the Philippines adopted a law in 1996 to introduce a competition mechanism in the selection of textbooks that would allow textbooks prepared by private publishers to be used as textbooks only through textbooks organized by the Ministry of Education . The purpose of enacting this law is to end the monopoly of the government on textbooks and to prevent the introduction of textbooks with high quality and low price into the schools. However, the English textbooks used by Filipino students still have many linguistic errors. After the development of English education in the United States during the period of colonial domination, the English education in the Philippines experienced the stages of the development of the national language, the bilingual education after the independence, and the multi-language education based on the mother tongue in the 21st century.
To have, mature. Government and enterprises and organizations have continuously increased their investment in English education, strengthened teacher training, improved hardware conditions and actively sought international cooperation. Not only for the country to train a large number of English talents, but also attract more and more foreigners to come to school, the Philippines is gradually becoming the Southeast Asian English education center. English advantage to the Philippines to create a lot of employment opportunities, but also brought great economic benefits. Philippines 94.6% of the country's cultural penetration, 72% of people can fluent in English, and easy to accept foreign culture. Compared with other developing countries, Philippine technicians are proficient in English, familiar with the international standard of professional knowledge and service standards, have good business skills and professional ethics.
Seeking a balance between nationalization and globalization. The language policy of a country must obey and serve the political needs and economic development of the country. The language education policy must be linked with the history and reality to make policy coherence and systematization. In the development of English or Filipino language, the Philippine government is often the trade-off, even in the implementation of bilingual education during the bilingual ability of students is not satisfactory. In 2003, when President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo consolidated the balance, the decision to amend the Constitution and to fund English to save national degradation was supported by political and business circles, but some nationalists saw it as " soul".
With the launch of UNESCO's "Linguistic Diversity" strategy in 2008, the Philippine Ministry of Education, in line with this international education trend, issued Decree No. 74 in 2009 to develop multilingualism based on the mother tongue in the development of Filipino and English While strengthening mother tongue learning. The world is moving towards multipolarity, and human society will enter the era of "linguistic pluralism." The linguistic pluralism strategy integrates language, culture and social development, helps to consolidate the role of language in educational development, and promotes Cultural diversity and dialogue. In this context, to find and maintain the advantages of the English language and the development of the balance between the Philippines, the Philippines will promote the socio-economic and cultural development.