英国essay论文精选范文：“The Development of the World Trade Organization”，这篇论文讨论了世界贸易组织的发展。自世界贸易组织成立以来，由于管辖范围的不断向纵深发展、成员日益增多；使WTO本身组织结构、决策机制等问题日益突出，严重影响了自身的发展。面对世界经济形势日益复杂的今天，WTO应该改革组织的结构和决策机制，体现民主、效率，提高自身可信度以及加强同其他国际经济组织的协调与合作。
In the past 11 years since the establishment of the World Trade Organization, the multilateral trade system represented by the WTO has been faced with severe challenges in the course of development. Due to the continuous development of jurisdiction and the increasing membership, the WTO itself has become increasingly prominent in its organizational structure and decision-making mechanism. Only by identifying problems and making concerted efforts and constantly improving them, can we play a positive role in the world economy and trade and promote the further development of trade liberalization.
In December 2005 the WTO General Council in Hong Kong formally approved the Pacific island countries Tonga to join, so that the full membership of the WTO to 150. The Sixth Ministerial Conference of the WTO was held in Hong Kong from December 13th to 18th. The ministerial declaration was adopted, which stipulated that developed and some developing members should provide duty-free and exemption to the least developed countries before 2008. Quota of market access; developed members in 2006 to cancel the export subsidies for cotton, by the end of 2013 to cancel all forms of agricultural subsidies. The Doha Round, a new round of multilateral trade negotiations launched in November 2001 in Doha, the Qatari capital, identified eight areas of negotiations, namely agriculture, non-agricultural market access, services, intellectual property, rules, dispute resolution, Trade and environment, and trade and development. The Doha Round was scheduled to end on January 1, 2005, but at the WTO ministerial meeting in Cancun, Mexico, the meeting ended without results due to lack of agreement among the members on issues such as agriculture. The 2006 "Doha Round" negotiations are still struggling, it is difficult for all parties to reach consensus on issues of common concern, it can be said that the development of the WTO is still foggy.
Looking back at the twists and turns of 11 years since the founding of the World Trade Organization, the multilateral trade system with WTO as its spokesperson has often encountered many obstacles. The WTO's growth path is full of thorns. Ignoring these problems means waiting to die. Only by calmly seeing the problems, Looking for solutions to make the WTO forever young.
The WTO is known as the "economic United Nations", but it is undeniable that, in today's trade liberalization, the leading role in the process of development is a small number of developed countries, global trade liberalization, investment liberalization process is dominated by developed countries in the international environment . Through the WTO, they formulate a variety of trade, investment and economic operation rules in line with their own interests, which determines the WTO still exists great limitations and problems in the WTO multilateral trade system development is bound to intertwined with various contradictions and conflicts.
The Impact of New Trade Protectionism on Trade Liberalization. At the national level and at the regional level, economic cooperation is intensifying continuously, and economic competition is intensifying day by day. Various trade protectionism thoughts are still in the resurgence from time to time. In the meantime, the anti- Various trade frictions and disputes occur more frequently. Especially in today's world economic slowdown, world trade growth slows, the world market capacity shrink, often accompanied by the rise of trade protectionism, not only in industrialized countries, but also in emerging market economies as well.
Regional economic collectivization is eroding the multilateral trading system. The multilateral trading system, which is based on the principle of non-discrimination, deals with regional trade agreements as an exception to the most-favored-nation clause, which treats regional trade agreements as complementary paths to global trade liberalization, and therefore to regional groups. Flexibility and pragmatism, the interests of regional groups often do not harmonize with the multilateral trading system, the rules formed, the regional trade agreement standards and rules are inconsistent, which pose a challenge to the development of the multilateral trading system. The multilateral trading system has sought to integrate regional group issues into multilateral frameworks to eliminate and constrain its negative effects.
The overall impact of economic globalization. How to manage an interdependent global economy has become the focus of international organizations and governments in the process of accelerating economic globalization. One of the WTO's functions is to work with other international economic organizations to improve the unity of international economic policy-making. The emergence of a new set of problems in the face of an increasingly interdependent rapid development of the global economy will lead to conflicts and conflicts among countries and inevitably in the field of trade. reflect. GATT / WTO has been committed to the development of global economic and trade rules to promote trade and investment liberalization, and the real challenge is that the WTO should focus on market regulation as well as market supervision, and improve the transparency of the operation. In order to promote the orderly development of trade liberalization, it is necessary for the WTO to reduce the influence of unilateral leadership in the process of making the world economy at the highest level, so that more developing countries can participate in a more open global decision-making mechanism. There is also a need to address the challenges posed in different areas of the global economy in a broader perspective, rather than fragmented.
WTO has the function of the Trinity, that is, international organizations, international trade treaty groups and multilateral trade negotiations. No matter which level, WTO are fruitful. But the dazzling aura behind the deeper issues of concern.
The WTO's support for trade relations is weak and the decision-making mechanism needs to be improved. GATT "birth defects" is that it is only a temporary "General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade," not a formal international organization, so the WTO came into being. The WTO has overcome the "birth defects" of the GATT and became a formal international organization. However, even when the WTO was set up, its organization can barely cope with it. With the increasing of the number of members, the increasing number of trade disputes and the increasing complexity of WTO negotiations, the WTO organization is almost overwhelmed. It can be said that the authoritative WTO is not strong, often cannot really play a role of the core decision-makers, "the shot when not shot."
The scope of WTO monitoring is still too narrow. First of all, the Agreement on Agriculture and the Agreement on Textiles and Clothing adopted by the WTO has a ten-year transitional period. This means that in the coming period, the coordination and management functions of agricultural products and textile products of the MTS will be greatly weakened and trade distortions will remain for a long time. Second, the technical trade agreements, the labor integration agreements , International market price agreements, trade-related environmental protection agreements, green products trade agreements, e-commerce agreements and other agreements have not yet introduced, but also greatly reduced the WTO in promoting the role of world trade liberalization.
WTO coordination, the ability to control the world free trade zone still insufficient. WTO provides free trade area between the members of the agreement, other WTO members do not have a rights and obligations, all the preferential terms, free trade area outside the members have no right to enjoy. Like a small country among the big powers, and the small countries there are still relatively independent regulatory system, the regulatory system can also be inconsistent with the WTO's basic principles and operating rules. Currently, preferential trade arrangements, free trade area, customs union, common market, economic alliance and other organizations has grown to 33, involving more than 100 members. If more than 100 members of the WTO to do it themselves, and engage in another set, but also talk about the role of WTO development, the WTO there is nothing necessary to exist and develop.
It can be seen that the WTO has achieved great success, but also there are many problems to be solved. At present, the WTO has been standing at a crossroads, where the way out, we need to think carefully about the problem. Facing the increasingly complex world economic situation today, the WTO should take the initiative to actively reform and meet the challenges.
Reform the organizational structure and decision-making mechanism, fully reflect the democracy, efficiency, improve transparency and credibility. An international organization to healthy functioning, reasonable organizational structure, democratic decision-making mechanism, these elements are essential. Today, as an outstanding international economic organization, the WTO should ensure the fulfillment of the mission and the role of the WTO in conformity with its status, at least in terms of scale and mode of operation.
The WTO seems to be at the forefront of economic integration, but its structure is very old, especially in public decision-making, and its wide representation is very inconsistent. In order to allow all members and even all countries to participate fully and equally in WTO negotiations and rules, the WTO must do the following: First, make the WTO a truly global trade organization through the successful entry into the WTO of all countries. And to ensure that no country is marginalized as the membership of the WTO grows; secondly, all legally binding decisions must be made through the General Council or other formal bodies; and thirdly, in determining the scope of the negotiated topics and negotiated agreements , The WTO should maintain a balance of interests among developed, developing and least developed countries; and fourthly, inform all members before the formal meeting and without prejudice to the participation of any members wishing to participate in such formal meetings.
Actively strengthen coordination and cooperation with other international economic organizations. Strengthening international trade and cooperation in the field of international finance is essential to maintaining an orderly world economic system. From a practical point of view, especially with the further deepening of economic globalization, international trade and international financial exchanges in the international economic exchanges will be more and more. In the three pillars of the world economy - the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank and the WTO, how to clear their division of labor, to strengthen mutual exchanges and cooperation, has aroused widespread concern.
Continue to effectively complete the "Doha Round" and the WTO Ministerial Conference of the issues and issues of common concern, to promote the further development of trade liberalization. The content of the Doha Round talks has exceeded the scope of any previous round of negotiations, including: agricultural negotiations, non-agricultural market access, development issues, intellectual property, services, trade and environment, dispute resolution, and regulatory issues. These negotiating issues implicate a sharp conflict of interest among WTO members, making the negotiations full of change and uncertainty, increasing the difficulty of the negotiations.