Exhibition is a kind of promotional activity to display productions and technologies. International Exhibition has great impacts on the social, cultural and economic development. World Expo is a kind of international exhibition, which is held and organized by a government. It is now to display the science and technology for breeding professional talents and the elementary education of the general public. The purpose of this portfolio is to find out the development history of the World Expo, and to evaluate the structure and context of organisation of the World Expo. Additionally, the discussion of the decision making processes and other management issues of World Expo will be proposed.
2. The Overview about World Expo
World Expo is also named as Universal Expo, World Fair or World's Fair. It is an international exhibition activity which has a long history and has great influence on social development and economic growth. It is often held by the governmental organization of host country or concerned departments (Rydell, 1993).
2.1 The Development History of World Expo
2.1.1 The Origin of World Expo
The World Expo originated from the European regular market trade in medieval. Initially, it is to display artwork and traditional crafts, and gradually it began to show the advanced science, technological innovation and new industrial technology. Exhibitors in the world are to show their contemporary culture, science development, the outcomes of technology and industry, which has a positive impact on the life of people (Mitchell, 1989).
“The Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations” was the first World Exhibition or Exposition in 1851, which was held in the Hyde Park of British capital -- London (Mattie, 1998). The Great Exhibition began on May 1 and ended on October 11 in 1851. The themes of this Great Exhibition were world culture and industrial technology, which displayed the brilliant achievements of technology and science after industrial revolution.
2.1.2 Early Stage
Along with new technologies and products’ emerging, people gradually realized that they could organize similar fairs to publicize and display their new productions. The World Expo in early stage mainly to exhibit the achievements of industrial civilization, and it lead the trend of the industrial revolution, boosted the economic and social development (Mitchell, 1989). The very successful World Expo of this stage is the 1855 Pairs Expo and the 1873 Vienna Expo.
Most of the World Expo in early stage was hold by government. The government took all functions, like inviting other countries to participate, organizing and promoting the Expo. In early stage, the World Expo was decided to be held alternately in different countries in the world.
2.1.3 Maturity Stage
At the beginning of 20th century, fewer World Expos were held due to the world war, some countries held some small specific expos. These expos were held by the government of each country, so it was affected by political factor seriously, and lack of uniform regulations for management organizations (Findling, 1990). In 1928, Bureau of International Exhibition was established, short for BIE.
2.1.4 Developing Stage
After the Second World War, the purpose of holding World Expo changed from showing the strength of the host country into promoting the development of all aspects of the host country. Many countries recognized that the World Expo is the best platform for accelerating the development; at the same time, it would bring immeasurable business opportunities, change the urban residents’ concepts (Xiao, 2009). The management system of World Expo was changed from government managing into government leading, other enterprises co-sponsored or sponsored, in order to relieve various pressure of government. Meanwhile, the theme of the World Expo changed from purely worshipping technical into emphasizing the ideas of improvement.
In 1933, the “Theme” system was induced into Chicago World Expo. The “theme” usually involved one or several problems which were concerned by human beings, and the participating countries and international organizations should seek the solution of the problem through the exhibition around the theme. The theme of 1933 World Expo was “A Century of Progress” (Altius Directory, 2010). Through displayed large number of new products, the World Expo clearly proposed that technological invention and innovation will be the major driving force for social development. After year 1933, every World Expo had chosen a clear theme as shown in appendix 1.
2.2 The Main Features of World Expo
The BIE divided those international exhibitions into two main types: World Expos and International Expos. Some differences between World Expos and International Expos are shown in appendix 2.
Other features of World Expo:
? The exhibitors are State Governments and International Organizations. During the World Expo, the Head of the every state will visit the host country, and participate in related activities.
? The World Expo lasted for a long time, usually several months or even half a year.
? The large scale of exhibition. The World Expo not only had the different kinds of pavilion, but also had the site for conference and other activities. (Xiao, 2009)
3. The Strategic Considerations for the World Expo
Strategy is a serious of activities organized by an organization, in order to achieve the aim of that organization and fulfill the expectations of stakeholders (Johnson et al, 2008). A model of the elements of strategic management is shown in appendix 3. The purpose of holding World Expo is to encourage human beings to innovate and active participate; it also encourages human beings to integrate and communicate with each other in science, culture, and emotion. World Expo often shows the new concepts, ideas and technologies development in the world. The organization’s aim to hold the World Exhibition is to help the participating countries keep wide contacts and exchanges through an international exhibition platform (Rydell, 1993). This section will talk about the strategic considerations for the World Exhibition or Exposition.
3.1 The Structure of the World Exhibition
Bureau of International Exhibition was established in 1928 and its Headquarter was in Paris of France. The Bureau of International Exhibition is responsible for coordinating and managing the World Exhibition or Exposition and it is also called BIE for short. Its constitution is ‘Convention on International Exhibitions’. This constitution was signed by representatives from 31 different states and governments in Pairs in 1928 (Ross and Staw, 1986). The Bureau of International Exhibition is the first international exhibition about coordination and management of the Expo in human history. It has made clear regulation on the nature of the Expo, classification, organization conditions, host cycle, bidding procedures, the responsibilities of host country, and the obligations of the participating countries.
The mission of BIE is to promote the exchanges and development of world economy, culture, science and technology by coordinating and organizing the World Exhibition or Exposition. The managing office for the Bureau of International Expositions is secretariat. The Secretary-General is the top leader of this department (Xiao, 2009). Its task is to monitor and guarantee the Implementation of ‘Convention on International Exhibitions’.
Bureau of International Exposition consists of three parts:
? General Assembly, the highest authority of Bureau of International Exposition. It takes responsible for the Expo bid reports and registration, developing regulations, amending the terms and ratifying relevant international agreements.
? Four professional committees:
l Executive Committee takes responsible to assess new projects and oversee the different aspects of Expo progress and organization.
l Rules Committee which is responsible for the rules and regulations the BIE and Expos.
l Administration and Budget Committee is responsible to oversee the budget of the BIE and the financial activities of the organization.
l Information and Communication Committee which is to oversee the communication strategy, plans and actions of the BIE and of Expos. (Bureau International des Expositions, 2010)
? Another one is secretary. Under the leadership of secretary, deal with daily affairs of the Bureau of International Exposition.
Besides the BIE, other organization will be established in host country to take charge of different tasks to hold the World Expo. Take 2010 Expo as an example, the institutes of Shanghai Expo is Shanghai 2010 World Exposition National Organizing Committee, Shanghai 2010 World Exposition Executive Committee and Bureau of Shanghai World Expo Coordination (Expo 2010 Shanghai China, 2010). Their responsibilities for the World Expo were shown in appendix 4.
3.2 The Context of the World Exhibition
The successful World Fair in the history was mostly organized in background of good international politics and economic environment, and emerging of industrial revolution. Only in the favorable international environment, World Exhibition could attract more countries and enterprises to participate and win more audiences.
The stability of a country in politics is the key factor to successful application of World Expo and the work efficiency of the government is the key factor to successfully hold the World Expo. The government’s role in World Expo is guiding, and introducing some laws and regulations about Expos. The government’s work also involves supporting the host city with human resources, financial and materials, promoting the bid to host the World Expo, doing various coordinating work before and after holding the World Expo (Xiao, 2009). If a country gets the right to hold World Expo, it will use the Expo’s impacts to invite worldwide countries to participate. It is really an opportunity to promote that country, for it can attract not only the worldwide countries to join Expo, but also can attract a lot of tourists worldwide.
World Expo is a large-scale international exhibition. The market of World Expo is high growth and lucrative for city and state economies, but it requires a higher level in organizational capacity of funding the input of infrastructures, environment and the assistance of participating countries. The host country should have the international status and economic strength to hold the World Expo and to invite the world's major countries to exhibit (Mattie, 1998). So, the country like China which has right to hold World Expo should have favorable conditions to provide better services, facilities, income increase and employment.
The public opinions on the World Expo are really important to the host organization, because the Expo needs the active participation of general public. After got the right to hold the World Expo 2010, Shanghai library added many books about World Expo as the information services for local citizens (Zhou, 2009). If a country wants to hold the world Expo successfully, it needs the general public’s support, like it needs volunteers to work for the World Expo, and also it needs audiences to support it (Mattie, 1998). Take Vienna as an example, in 1995, Vienna government win the right to host the World Expo, but it suffered the fierce opposition from the public in Vienna. Although the Expo project was already commenced, the organizers finally had to return the host right of World Expo to the BIE (Baidu, 2007).
Advanced technology is the key topic of each World Expo. Due to continuous development of society, the country pays more attention to harmonious development between human and nature. The technology innovation shows the ability of saving energy and protecting environment of the host country, meanwhile, the host country should have such technology to provide a good environment for World Expo, like the good quality of air, the convenient public transport, the ability of waste management and so on (UNEP, 2010)
3.3 Decision-making Processes of World Expo
According to Comas and Moscardo (2005, p.117), "a critical question for organizations and business involved in destination marketing and the provision of services for conferences and meeting is how associations decide where to hold their conferences and meetings. An understanding of these decision-making processes could provide valuable insights into how a destination can best promote them to this sector."
The decision-making can be defined as “efficient decision-making involves a series of steps that require the input of information at different stages of the process, as well as a process for feedback” (Baker, 2001) (see Appendix 5).
The General Assembly of BIE is in charge of making the decisions concerning World Expo, including the most important decision: host city for World Expo.
The application of decision-making procedures to World Expo destination can be identified in four steps: application, study (includes bid tour), votes and registration. (Show in appendix 6).
With the development of event industry all around the world, the number, size and frequency of meeting and conventions have grown dramatically (Oppermann & chon, 1997; Spiller, 2002). And more and more cities realize the potential economic benefit of this industry. Therefore the competition has increased (Crouch & Louviere, 2004). To bid the event successfully in an intense competition, some important criteria are identified. Getz (2001, p.2) states the most important critical success factors for winning bids were "strong partners, excellent presentations and treating each bid as a unique process." another study by Westerbeek, Turner and Ingerson (2002) claims more factors that are critical for bidding, which are: the ability to organize the event; political support; infrastructure; existing facilities; communication and exposure; accountability; bid team composition; and relationship marketing.
According to electoral rules, each member of International Exhibitions Bureau has one vote regardless of their size. In the first round of voting, if a candidate city acquires more than two-thirds of the votes, the city will be the host city for World Expo. If there is no one candidate city receives the necessary votes in the first round of voting, there will be a second round of voting. However, the least number of votes in the first round will have no right to contest in the next round. In the second voting round, the city which gets more than two-thirds vote becomes candidates. Otherwise, it will continue the third voting round until elect two most votes cities. The final race will be held between the two cities. The city which gets more votes will be the final winner (Xiao, 2009).
3.4 Other Management Issues of World Expo
3.4.1 Ethics Management
Ethics is the cognitive, analytical, systematic and reflective application of moral principle to complex, conflicting or unclear situations (Wine, 2008). It can be defined as a moral philosophy or set of principles; moral concerns the goodness or badness of human character, or what is wrong or right in conduct (ISES, 1996:49).
In the friendly and relaxing atmosphere of World expo, it is easy to blur the boundary of ethics issues. To avoid those problems, some methods are provided within the code of ethics (ISES):
? Do not accept expensive gifts with ban or limits;
? Avoid confusion regarding a change in an agreement. Try to settle down all the agreements in writing with witness;
? Avoid improper promotion of services;
? Clearly disclose the circumstances concerning the production of the events;
? Clearly disclose the specific contributions to the events (Goldblatt, 2005, p.346).
3.4.2 Sustainability Management
As the increasing scale of the World Expo, there is a growing recognition that the World Expo will set a huge influence on the development of host city, so putting the follow-use plan into the parks planning process is the main trend of the sustainability management (Cha, 2007). Whether the follow-use plan is successful is one of the elements to measure if the World Expo is successful. In history, there are a lot of host cities made a good use of the architectures of the World Expo, like the Triumphal Arch in Barcelona and the Eiffel Tower in Pairs. Tourism industry became the largest beneficiaries, because these architectures became into famous tourism attractions (Xu, 2000). With the developing of World Expo, more considerations were set to sustainability management, and the reuse of pavilions becomes the key factor when designing the pavilions before hosting the World Expo.
World Exhibition is considered as the Olympic event in the areas of economy, technology and culture in the world because of its rapid development. It is very meaningful to discuss the main features of World Expo and the development history of World Expo, including the early stage, maturity stage and developing stage. The organizational structure and context of Expo was discussed in order to understand how the World Expo being organized and planned. The evaluation of decision-making process made an explanation of how the host city bid the host right of the World Expo. Meanwhile, the organization of World Expo also encounters many management issues. According with the analysis above, this report puts forward the following measures to help to salve the management issues of Expo. First of all, science and technology are the basis for the holding of World Expo, so the host country should pay attention to the innovation of science and technology. Second, the host country should actively promote the stable and rapid development of economic and build a sound economic base for the successful convocation of the World Expo. Third, the hosted country must ensure the domestic stability of political and economic environment. Finally, the host country should improve the organization and management mechanisms of Expo. Meanwhile, the host country should explore the human services forms; improve service levels and efficiency actively.