英国论文代写精选范文：“International spread of Japan's NHK cult”，这篇文章主要讲述了当今世界，以开办国际频道或其他形式进行国际传播的动机主要是三种，即政治、经济或文化。政治需求主要是为了强化或夺取“话语权”，经济需求则是立足商业运作、谋求利益最大化，而文化需求则是提升他国民众对本国文化的认知和认同。作为公营媒体机构，日本NHK开展国际传播的目标主要是传播日本文化，在国际媒体竞争中以“文化战略”来赢得自己的一席之地，由此向世界传递日本的声音。
NHK（Nippon Hoso Kyokai，日本广播协会）是日本唯一一家公共电视机构，其前身是1925年3月22日播出的东京广播电台，1926年8月20日与大阪广播电台和名古屋广播电台合并后，正式成为全国性广播电台组织。目前，NHK国际频道包括环球电视频道（NHK WORLD TV）和环球收费频道（NHK WORLD PREMIUM）。其中，NHK环球电视频道在全世界约120个国家和地区拥有1.25亿收视家庭（截至2010年3月），他们通过当地的卫星或闭路电视服务收看该频道。根据NHK的规划，2014年之前NHK环球电视频道要进入全球1.5亿家庭。
Today's world, to the establishment of international channels, or other forms of international spread of the main motivation is three, namely, political, economic or cultural. Political demand is mainly to enhance or capture the 'voice', is based on economic demand business operations, seeking to benefit maximization, and cultural needs of the people in other countries is to enhance awareness of their own culture and identity as the public media sector, Japan's NHK international spread of the main goals is to spread Japanese culture, the competition in the international media to 'cultural strategy' to win their place, thus the voice of Japan to the world.
NHK (Nippon Hoso Kyokai, Japan Broadcasting Association) is Japan's only public television organization, its predecessor is March 22, 1925 radio broadcast of Tokyo, August 20, 1926 and Osaka, and Nagoya radio radio merger after the organization officially became the national radio station now, NHK World TV international channels, including channels (NHK WORLD TV) and global premium channels (NHK WORLD PREMIUM). which, NHK World TV channels in 120 countries around the world and has 125 million viewing households (as of March 2010), they adopted the local satellite or closed circuit television service to watch the channel, according to NHK's plan, 2014 NHK World TV channels to enter the 150 million households worldwide now, NHK World TV Channel The programs include: news, current affairs, documentaries, business, culture and technology, life, art and music, travel. as March 2010, NHK total of 31 countries and regions in the presence of 75 foreign correspondents. NHK in Beijing General Administration of China, Japan and China a total of 22 employees.
NHK in the international spread of the 'cultural Strategy' NHK
Today's world, to the establishment of international channels, or other forms of international spread of the main motivation is three, namely, political, economic or cultural. Political demand is mainly to enhance or capture the 'voice', is based on economic demand business operations, seeking to benefit maximization, and cultural needs of the people in other countries is to enhance awareness of their own culture and identity as the public media sector, Japan's NHK international spread of the main goals is to spread Japanese culture, the competition in the international media to 'cultural strategy' to win their place, thus the voice of Japan to the world. NHK mainly through two channels to achieve its 'strategic culture' that show communication and cultural diplomacy.
Program spread. NHK NHK World TV channels, primarily through (NHK World TV) for program transmission. Japan launch global TV channels in mind this is in response to information input and output unbalanced pressure .1990 years (as of 2 years) in July, Japan Government Ministry of Posts issued a <<2 years of Heisei Communications White Paper>> that Japan received in the year 1988 the amount of foreign television programs transmitted abroad program in Japan to 18 times the amount of the Japanese community which was, by NHK Japanese culture to achieve output is the Japanese government to modify and expand the NHK Broadcasting Act, one of the most important business purpose of the Japanese development of international TV channels are divided into three steps, first broadcast TV Japan. TV Japan is not a stable of television channels, but by NHK in New York and London to the two television channels that provide programming, broadcast back to the local Japanese nationals. The second step is 'entrusted broadcasting business' conducted April 3 In 1995, NHK TV Japan began the two TV channels JNG and JSTV, broadcast five hours per day to North America to Europe, 3 hours and 10 minutes of broadcast television. The third step is to NHK in 1996 and landed in Brazil in September 1997, landed in Mexico in July .1994 years, Japan's revision of the <<Broadcasting Act>>, will be overseas for NHK television identified as the scope of business must perform according to the revised <<Broadcasting Act>>, NHK1995 was started for Europe, North America In 1998 television broadcast overseas in April, NHK World TV channels (NHK WORLD TV) broadcasting, and its slogan 'Asian perspective' ('Your Eye on Asia'). NHK World TV channel began broadcasting, the broadcast time and scope of the gradual October to expand the year 1999, the channel began to broadcast 24 hours, August 2001, coverage was extended to the southern African region, which basically covers the world on February 2 In 2009, NHK World TV channel broadcast a 24 hours English language news and information channel.
At present, NHK World TV channels broadcast the programs, cultural programs on broadcast accounted for on the average ratio of length to reach 28.75%. NHK World TV news programs are only two: the whole demand out of the <<breaking news>> (Newsline ) and broadcast the week <<Asia seven days>> (Asia 7 Days), part of culture to 14, covering different topics and some part of Japanese culture with a strong emphasis on transmission characteristics of the content, for example, <<Japanese cherry> > (SAKURA-Cherry Blossom inJapan) introduced the famous Japanese cherry blossom spots, cherry as Japan's national flower is the Japanese cultural symbols; <<Kurihara Harumi private kitchens '(Harumi Kurihara Cooking) and <<day meal kitchen>> (Your Japanese Kitchen ) promote food culture is a type of program, <<easy to learn Japanese '(NIHONGO QUICK LESSON) is a programming language and culture classes, travel or meeting with professors in Japan, when Japanese friends, simple phrases and useful vocabulary, <<Japanese etiquette>> ( Sense of Japan) is a program about basic Japanese etiquette, <<Living in Japan>> (Begin Japanology) content is about the details of Japanese culture and Japanese aesthetics and values ??in the culture, class program, NHK World TV channel focusing on promotion, including music and art, including contemporary Japanese culture, its share of broadcast time on the average ratio of the total broadcast time to reach 10.55%.
NHK Secretary Xichuan Ji of China's total acceptance of my interview, Mr. Lang said, foreigners are actually interested in Japan on two levels, first in Japan are more advanced in the world of technology, economy, technology, and the other is the typical Japanese culture to foreign audiences in order to meet the interest on these two aspects, NHK World TV channels when they have focused in the production program. And, NHK World channel's programming system is also beneficial to its content to meet the demand for foreign audiences, implementation of the 'cultural strategy' December 21, .2007, Japan <<Broadcast Law 'amendment to the House of Representatives after the Senate passed the revised access, requiring NHK' the establishment of new foreign broadcast mechanism 'to' for foreigners 'and' for overseas Japanese overseas 'separated for foreigners outside the TV broadcast, and some of its programming services can be entrusted to the NHK subsidiary production. This is from the legal protection by the dedicated team to produce a special TV programs for foreign audiences.
In addition to culture, class sections, NHK World channel also focus on the news program reported that Japan's cultural dynamics and demonstrate the cultural tradition of Japan Japan Broadcasting Association General Secretary Xi Chuanji China, Mr. Lang said in an interview with the author, 'journalism is a reflection of culture, and is a reflection of the most typical. 'NHK World TV channels although the ultimate goal is to become the same as CNN and BBC world-class media, but its channel positioning, the dissemination of ideas and content are not set to go' up Taiwan News 'line, but to use the unique Japanese culture in the world to go cultural routes, focusing on dissemination of international audiences, it is rather novel and attractive Japanese culture, another way to Japan in the international community for the right to speak.
In addition, NHK also pay attention to the sale of cultural products through the dissemination of culture. NHK set up a special international program responsible for buying and selling agents NEP (NHK Enterprises.INC), the company responsible for overseas sales reflect Japanese culture, Japanese culture, or a features documentaries, TV series and cartoons. 2007 fiscal year (April 1, 2007 to March 31, 2008), NHK total of 43 countries and regions to sell 5211 program in the 2008 fiscal year (2008 April 1 to March 31, 2009), a total of 43 countries and regions to sell a 7516 program in the 2009 fiscal year (April 1, 2009 to March 31, 2010), NHK to 40 national and regional sales of the 3706 program.
Cultural diplomacy. In addition to the programs focus on the dissemination of cultural content, NHK in the international dissemination of real.
Shi 'cultural strategy' Another important step is to carry out cultural diplomacy. According to its own characteristics, NHK's cultural diplomacy activities are mainly carried out in two ways, namely, cultural activities and international cooperation.
NHK's international cultural activities of various forms, for example, NHK invited world-class conductors and orchestras, jointly held 'NHK Music Festival', in addition, NHK sponsored year 'NHK Cup International Figure Skating Championships.' NHK's number in cultural activities, the more influential of the three International Competitions, namely NHK Asian Film Festival (NHK Asian Film Festival), the Sundance / NHK International Filmmakers Award (Sundance / NHK International Filmmakers Award) and 'Japan Prize' (The Japan Prize).
Through these cultural class events, not only promoted international cultural development, but also greatly enhance the NHK's influence and credibility.
NHK is another important cultural diplomacy strategy is international cooperation in the cultural field, mainly in the form of technical cooperation and collaboration programs.
Regard to technical cooperation, NHK acceptance by sending experts and their counterparts in target countries and other forms of training experts to Japan to Asia, Oceania, Africa and Latin America and other developing countries, radio and television organizations to provide technical cooperation to send experts and receive training personnel involved in the wide range of areas, including radio and television equipment, maintenance, signal transmission, programming techniques, radio and television operations, etc. In the past 50 years, NHK dispatch experts and accept the total number of Staff Training to 4333 people.
Cooperation in terms of programs, NHK and many overseas broadcasters and production companies to maintain cooperative relations in the past 30 years, NHK has been produced by way of international cooperation, the 750 program, for example, has greater repercussions in China <<Silk Road>> is CCTV and NHK co-produced the first major television series, the film from August 1979 until the end of May 1981, shot a total of 20 months, the domestic travel thousands of kilometers, film 450,000 ft .1985 to 1988, CCTV and NHK filming of the documentary series again <<Yellow>> From April 2009 to March 2010, NHK broadcast a total of 54 international co-production of program, the number of programs to 165.
External communication of China's TV revelation country is now increasing the intensity of the international spread of television, offering a comprehensive multiple languages ??or international news channel. How to make better TV 'going out', how to improve our ability to the international spread of foreign television and influence is becoming a subject of public attention, while NHK in the international spread of the 'cultural strategy' in some respects a certain reference and enlightenment.
Strengthening of cultural content, and enhance the attractiveness of external communication. According to Blue Ocean International Communication Association in 2008 for the <<Blue Ocean Survey: Americans in the eyes of China>>, in answer to 'want to know what the reason China' issue, the Chinese culture and history of interest on top, up to 49%, this is more than reason, 'China's increasing political and economic power,' 20 percent more (Table 1).
At present the Chinese culture in our TV content in the proportion of external communication is still not high, and the political and economic, in particular international political and economic issues in the dissemination of the contents still occupy a large percentage. Therefore, in China's TV external communication, the need consciously adopt a 'cultural transmission' of the soft ways to increase the attractiveness of the content to enhance the effect of external communication.
Perfect model of cultural diplomacy to enhance the influence of external communication. At present, the main mode of cultural diplomacy is to 'go out' to different channels to the world cultural exchanges and dissemination activities. The external television, the 'going out 'While necessary,' Please come in 'is also essential so-called' Please come 'is organized by the appropriate agencies of foreign television cultural activities to attract the world's counterparts to participate, interact, and enhance understanding, and thus enhance the influence of China although have been 'Shanghai TV Festival', 'Changchun Film Festival' and other international TV, film festival, but its influence still have room for improvement; present, China is still no TV station NHK Asian Film Festival as international filmmakers and award 'Japan Prize' category of cultural activities or patterns of spread. In addition, in the long run, for foreign countries, especially developing countries, training foreign students, television journalists training and personnel exchange to China to carry out work for the upgrade the impact of China's external communication is important. In short, the cultural diplomacy of the model should be diversified, not only to vigorously 'go out', but also actively 'Please come in' multi-level, multi-channel approach to enhancing our external communication of influence.