欢迎来到51Due,请先 | 注册
关注我们: 51due论文代写二维码 51due论文代写平台微博
英国论文代写,英国essay代写知名品牌微信

写作技巧

为您解决留学中生活、学习、工作的困难、疑惑
释放自我

提高英文论文质量的七个关键

2017-06-19 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:写作技巧

留学生们在写作英文论文时,都会想方设法提高论文的质量,但总是没什么效果,这是因为留学生们的方向是错误的。一篇英文论文当中,字、词、句、段四者都能漂亮而又有效的话,那么相信这篇论文绝对不会差到哪里去。下面就给大家讲解一下提高英文论文质量的七个关键因素,或许对大家有些帮助。

提高英文论文质量,英文论文质量,英国代写,essay代写,paper代写

这七个关键因素分别是:平行结构(Parallelism)、缺词(Needed Words)、修饰成分位置错乱(Problems with Modifiers)、转换(Shifts)、结构混搭(Mixed Construction)、句子重心(Sentence emphasis)和句型多样化(Sentence variety),下文中来为大家一一介绍。

1、平行结构(Parallelism

在英文论文写作当中,有时候一些平等的思想往往要通过平行结构更有效的表达出来(推荐在写结尾段的时候使用),漂亮的有效的平行结构上的成分应该是一致的,要么全部是单词平行,要么全部是短语平行,要么全部是句子平行,请看下面的例子:

单词的平行:

A kiss can be a comma, a question mark, or an exclamation point.

短语的平行:

This novel is not to be tossed lightly aside, but to be hurled with great force.

句子的平行:

In matters of principle, stand like a rock; in matters of taste, swim with the current.

因此留学生们在写句子的时候要遵循这个简单的原则。

2、缺词(Needed Words

在英文论文当中的某些成分是可以省略的,这也符合英语写作的精简原则,能省则省,但是前提是不会导致句意的模糊以及产生语法错误,下面的八个句子就是犯了这样的错误,大家看看能不能一眼就看出来,答案在最后面。

1) Successful advertisers target customers whom they identify through demographic research or have purchased their product in the past.

2) Mayor Davis never has and never will accept a bribe.

3) In his famous obedience experiments, psychologist Stanley Milgram discovered ordinary peoplewere willing to inflict physical pain on strangers.

4) The forests of North America are much more extensive than Europe.

5) Some say that Ella Fitzgeralds renditions of Cole Porters songs are better than any other singer.

6) Jupiter is larger than any planet in our solar system.

7) We bought a computer and antivirus program.

8) Ken helped memore than my roommate.

答案:

1) or后面加who因为or后面引导的定语从句,先行词在后面充当的是主语成分,不能用宾语的whom

2) has后面加accepted

3) discovered后面加that,因为discover后面是可以加宾语也可以加宾语从句,为了能让读者一下子就知道后面是宾语从句,所以要加 that,否则读者可能需要回过头来再读

4) than后面加those of,比较的时候,比较的对象一定要一致!而且比较的成分的地位永远都是平等的,比如说:She is taller than I (而不是me).

5) 最后一个单词改成singer’s

6) any 后面加other’

7) and 后面加an

8) 这个属于语义不明,两种改法:Ken helped me more than he helped my roommate. 或者 Ken helped me more than my roommate did.

3、修饰成分位置错乱(Problems with Modifiers

修饰词,无论是一个单词还是词组或者是从句,都要满足一个基本原则:要和被修饰的成分连在一起,不能隔开太远,否则会造成句意模糊、歧义等问题。细分下来,要满足以下的规则:

1) 限制性的修饰词,比如说only, even, almost, just, 这些词如果是限定动词的,那要放在动词前面,如果是限制句子中其他成分的,需要放在那些成分之前。

2) 有一些短语或者从句有时是可以离被修饰的成分一段距离的,但是有时也会产生歧义,这个时候,要调整位置。

3) 英语中的句子,按照常理,顺序应该是主语+谓语+(宾语),所以,如果状语或者副词性质的成分将主语和谓语隔开,或者将谓语和宾语隔开,或者将助动词和主动词(比如说 can think, can是助动词,think是主动词)隔开, 这样的句子是比较奇怪的。

注意:英语中不允许用一个副词隔开“谓语+宾语”的结构。

4) 如果出现非谓语动词词组,这些词组的逻辑主语应该和主句的主语是一样的。

4、转换(Shifts

大家在写作的时候进场会无意识地进行没有必要的转换,很容易导致句子出现问题,主要包括以下四大类:

1) 人称(Point of view)的转换

2) 时态(Verb tense)的转换

3) 语气主被动态(Verb mood and voice)的转换

4) 直接和间接引语(Direct and indirect questions or quotations)的转换。

5、结构混搭(Mixed Construction

进行不同结构的混搭,这样会导致出现语法或者逻辑的错误,所以在写句子的时候,首先要想好要表达什么,然后选择合适的句型结构再下笔,不然写着写着会出现下面的句子:

1) For most drivers who have a blood alcohol level of .05 percent double their risk of causing an accident.

这句话一开始的时候,是一个介词短语,但是写着写着就把这个介词短语作为主语了(这是不可以的,主语必须是名词性质的),大家看看怎么修改?

更多类似的错误,大家看看如何修改:

2) When the country elects a president is the most important responsibility in a democracy.

3) Although the United States is one of the wealthiest nations in the world, but more than twelve million of our children live in poverty.

4) We decided that Tiffany’s welfare would not be safe living with her mother.

5) Under the revised plan, the elderly, who now receive a double personal exemption, will be abolished.

6) The tax accountant, a very lucrative profession, requires intelligence, patience, and attention to mathematical detail.

另外写句子的时候,要避免“is when” “is where” “reason...is because”这样的结构.

答案:

1) 修改方案一:(主语加黑,谓语另外颜色标出):For most drivers who have a blood alcohol level of .05 percent, the risk of causing an accident is doubled.

修改方案二:Most drivers who have a blood alcohol level of .05 percent double their risk of causing an accident.

2) Electing a president is the most important responsibility in a democracy.

3) 去掉 but,因为but 的作用是连接两个单独的句子,但是这个句子中although连接的是个让步状语从句,必须要依附在主句上面。

4) We decided that Tiffany would not be safe living with her mother.(是Tiffany的认识安全,而不是她的健康的安全,主谓逻辑要说得通)。

5) Under the revised plan, the double personal exemption for the elderly will be abolished.

6) Tax accounting, a very lucrative profession, requires intelligence, patience, and attention to mathematical detail. (accounting是职业,accountant是人)

6、句子重心(Sentence emphasis

所谓从句,他的地位永远是低于主句的,所以重点的信息,你不应该放在从句上,否则虽然你的语法没有问题,你写的东西就是主次不分,那么如何把握句子的重心呢?

1) 如果是地位同等重要的句子,不要用从句,链接两个独立的句子,千万不能用逗号隔开,连接的方法如下:

a) and, but, or, nor, so, for, yet 7个连接词链接;

b) 用分号隔开后面往往跟moreover, furthermore, therefore, or however或者 for example, in other words, or as a matter of fact 这样的短语结构。

2) 如果两个句子表达的思想不是同等重要,主要的思想要放在主句上,次要的思想放在从句上面,用引导词引导。

大家来看下面的两个句子,如果主从句互换,意思重心是不一样的

Social networking Web sites offer ways for people to connect in the virtual world. They do not replace face-to-face social interaction.

连接方案一(重点在主句)

Although they do not replace face-to-face social interaction, social networking Websites offer ways for people to connect in the virtual world.

连接方案二(重点在主句)

Although social networking Web sites offer ways for people to connect in the virtualworld, they do not replace face-to-face social interaction.

3) 英语中有一个精简原则,如果可以用一个单词表达的时候,就不要用两个单词。同理,如果可以用一个句子表达的,就不要分两个句子,大家看下下面的句子如何修改,为什么这么修改?

The Parks Department keeps the use of insecticides to a minimum. The city isconcerned about the environment.

The Parks Department keeps the use of insecticides to a minimum because the thecity is concerned about the environment.

4) 有的时候学生写句子的时候,会不断地用“and”来链接句子,导致一些可以放在从句上的内容也放在主句上去讲了,主从不分,导致文章不达意,大家看看下面的而句子,怎么修改,为什么这么修改?

Closets were taxed as rooms, and most colonists stored their clothes in chests or clothespresses.

Because closets were taxed as rooms, most colonists stored their clothes in chests or clothespresses. 这句话之所以好,是因为它把因果关系表达得更加明确,达意。

5) 主次不要颠倒,大家看看下面的句子怎么修改,为什么这么修改?

Harry S. Truman, who was the unexpected winner of the 1948 presidential election, defeated Thomas E. Dewey.

Harry S. Truman, who defeated Thomas E. Dewey, was the unexpected winner of the 1948 presidential election.

练习(如何修改):

I wasd riving home from my new job, heading down Ranchitos Road, when my car suddenly overheated.

6) 不要过分堆叠从句,一般从句中不要再加从句。大家看下下面的句子,怎么来修改:

In Animal Liberation, Peter Singer argues that animals possess nervous systems andcan feel pain, and that he therefore believes that “the ethical principle onwhich human equality rests requires us to extend equal consideration to animals” (1). [p.s. 这是MLA格式的引用方法]

In Animal Liberation, Peter Singer argues that animals possess nervous systems andcan feel pain, and therefore he believes that “the ethical principle onwhich human equality rests requires us to extend equal consideration to animals” (1).

7、句型多样化(Sentence variety

无论是哪一种论文作业,句型多样化肯定是评分标准之一,如果写作的时候,用过多的简单句,文章会显得单调,如果用过多的复杂句,文章也同样会单调,最优方案是简单句和复杂句使用频率能够平衡一下,不要走入两个极端。

大多数的英语句子都是主语开头,然后是动词,然后是宾语(如果有的话),一些修饰成分都是穿插在其中,或者放在句子的最后。这样的句子没什么问题,但是过多这样的句子顺序会使得句子变的单调。

解决方案一:副词性的短语如果是用来修饰动词,它的位置是非常灵活的,所以可以放在句子的最前面,比如说:

1) A few drops of sap eventually began to trickle into the bucket.

可以改成:Eventually a few drops of sap began to trickle into the bucket.

2).A pair of black ducks flew over the pond just as the sun was coming up.

可以改成:Just as the sun was coming up, a pair of black ducks flew over the pond.

解决方案二:形容词性质分词形容词短语往往是可以放在句首的,比如说:

3) Edward, dejected and withdrawn, nearly gave up his search for a job.

可以改成:Dejected and withdrawn, Edward nearly gave up his search for a job.

4) John and I, anticipating a peaceful evening, sat down at the campfire to brew a cup of coffee.

可以改成:Anticipating a peaceful evening, John and I sat down at the campfire to brew a cup of coffee.

解决方案三:倒装句(可以用来强调),注意,倒装句不是用的越多越好,大多数的倒装句看上去是很不自然,很装的,但是如果为了某一个目的(比如说强调或者句型的特殊要求),倒装后读起来又很自然,可以适当使用,比如说:

5) A refrigerated case of cheeses is opposite the produce section.

可以改成:Opposite the produce section is a refrigerated case of cheeses.

6) Huge lavender hearts outlined in bright white lights were at the top two corners of the stage.

可以改成:Placed at the top two corners of the stage were huge lavender hearts outlined in bright white lights.

7) Of particular concern are penicillin and tetracycline, antibiotics used to make animals more resistant to disease.(因为主语 penicillin and tetracycline 后面紧跟着一个同位语,所以不适合把主语放在句首,只能倒装)。

TIP: 主语也可以多样化,主语可以是一个名词,一个名词性的词组(doing something, 或者是名词性从句。

以上就是提高英文论文质量的一些方法,希望可以帮助大家在写作英文论文的时候写出既漂亮又有效的句子。

想要了解更多英国留学资讯或者需要英国代写,请关注51Due英国论文代写平台,51Due是一家专业的论文代写机构,专业辅导海外留学生的英文论文写作,主要业务有英国代写、essay代写assignment代写、paper代写。亲们可以进入主页了解和获取更多关于英国代写以及英国留学资讯,我们将为广大留学生提升写作水平,帮助他们达成学业目标。如果您有英国代写需求,可以咨询我们的客服QQ800020041-ZR

我们的优势

  • 05年成立,已帮助上万人
  • 24小时专业客服
  • 团队成员都毕业于全球著名高校
  • 保证原创,支持检测

英国站